Biomedical Research Education & Training
Faculty Member

Blakely, Randy D., Ph.D.
Professor of Pharmacology
Allan D. Bass Chair in Pharmacology
Professor of Psychiatry

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Phone Number: (615) 936-1700

Email Address:

Blakely, Randy's picture
Academic history
B.A., Emory University School of Medicine
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Postdoc, Yale University School of Medicine

Office Address   Mailing Address

465 21st Avenue South, 7140 MRB III

7140 MRB III Center for Molecular Neuroscience 37232-8548

Research Keywords
neurotransmitter, transport, genetics, phosphorylation, antidepressant, cocaine, amphetamine, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, Polymorphism

Patient Care Specialty
Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, Orthostatic Intolerance (OI), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Congestive Heart Failure

Research Specialty
molecular neuroscience and neurogenetics linked to brain targets of psychostimulants and antidepressants and neurotransmitter inactivation

Research Description
Once released into the synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters like serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE) must be quickly removed to limit the magnitude and duration of chemical signaling. The principal mechanism for 5HT and NE clearance is active transport back into neuronal terminals. Drugs with important clinical or addictive properties, including antidepressants, cocaine and amphetamines, block the access of 5HT and NE to transport sites and thus prolong their action. Using chimera studies and site-directed mutagenesis, we are exploring structural domains that lead to neurotransmitter and antagonist specificity for 5HT and NE transporters. With site specific antibodies and electrophysiologic techniques, we are evaluating post-translational mechanisms involved in acute carrier regulation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we are exploring the effects of targeted transporter mutations using transgenic mice as a model for the behavioral and neurologic consequences of transporter defects in humans.

Clinical Interests
I am interested in disorders of disrupted biogenic amine (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) signaling in the CNS, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems.

Carneiro, AM, Airey, DC, Thompson, B, Zhu, CB, Lu, L, Chesler, EJ, Erikson, KM, Blakely, RD. Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(6), 2047-52, 2009 PMCID:2632716

Kaufmann, KW, Dawson, ES, Henry, LK, Field, JR, Blakely, RD, Meiler, J. Structural determinants of species-selective substrate recognition in human and Drosophila serotonin transporters revealed through computational docking studies. Proteins, 74(3), 630-42, 2009

Matthies, HJ, Han, Q, Shields, A, Wright, J, Moore, JL, Winder, DG, Galli, A, Blakely, RD. Subcellular localization of the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter. BMC Neurosci, 10, 65, 2009 PMCID:2716352

Prasad, HC, Steiner, JA, Sutcliffe, JS, Blakely, RD. Enhanced activity of human serotonin transporter variants associated with autism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1514), 163-73, 2009 PMCID:2674096

Raj, V, Haman, KL, Raj, SR, Byrne, D, Blakely, RD, Biaggioni, I, Robertson, D, Shelton, RC. Psychiatric profile and attention deficits in postural tachycardia syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 80(3), 339-44, 2009 PMCID:2758320

Steiner, JA, Carneiro, AM, Wright, J, Matthies, HJ, Prasad, HC, Nicki, CK, Dostmann, WR, Buchanan, CC, Corbin, JD, Francis, SH, Blakely, RD. cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha associates with the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter and dictates rapid modulation of serotonin uptake. Mol Brain, 2(1), 26, 2009 PMCID:2731736

Carneiro, AM, Cook, EH, Murphy, DL, Blakely, RD. Interactions between integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and the serotonin transporter regulate serotonin transport and platelet aggregation in mice and humans. J Clin Invest, 118(4), 1544-52, 2008 PMCID:2260909

Carvelli, L, Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. Dopamine transporter/syntaxin 1A interactions regulate transporter channel activity and dopaminergic synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(37), 14192-7, 2008 PMCID:2528871

Hahn, MK, Blackford, JU, Haman, K, Mazei-Robison, M, English, BA, Prasad, HC, Steele, A, Hazelwood, L, Fentress, HM, Myers, R, Blakely, RD, Sanders-Bush, E, Shelton, R. Multivariate permutation analysis associates multiple polymorphisms with subphenotypes of major depression. Genes Brain Behav, 7(4), 487-95, 2008 PMCID:2670227

Henry LK, Blakely RD. Distinctions between dopamine transporter antagonists could be just around the bend. Mol Pharmacol, 73(3), 813-23, 2008

Hoard JL, Hoover DB, Mabe AM, Blakely RD, Feng N, Paolocci N. Cholinergic neurons of mouse intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic enzymes, norepinephrine transporters, and the neurotrophin receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A and p75. Neuroscience, 156(1), 129-42, 2008

Kim CH, Waldman ID, Blakely RD, Kim KS. Functional gene variation in the human norepinephrine transporter: association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1129, 256-60, 2008

Mazei-Robison, MS, Bowton, E, Holy, M, Schmudermaier, M, Freissmuth, M, Sitte, HH, Galli, A, Blakely, RD. Anomalous dopamine release associated with a human dopamine transporter coding variant. J Neurosci, 28(28), 7040-6, 2008 PMCID:2573963

Misawa H, Fujigaya H, Nishimura T, Moriwaki Y, Okuda T, Kawashima K, Nakata K, Ruggiero AM, Blakely RD, Nakatsu F, Ohno H. Aberrant trafficking of the high-affinity choline transporter in AP-3-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci, 27(12), 3109-17, 2008

Orndorff, RL, Warnement, MR, Mason, JN, Blakely, RD, Rosenthal, SJ. Quantum dot ex vivo labeling of neuromuscular synapses. Nano Lett, 8(3), 780-5, 2008

Steiner, JA, Carneiro, AM, Blakely, RD. Going with the flow: trafficking-dependent and -independent regulation of serotonin transport. Traffic, 9(9), 1393-402, 2008

Zhao, J, Matthies, DS, Botzolakis, EJ, Macdonald, RL, Blakely, RD, Hedera, P. Hereditary spastic paraplegia-associated mutations in the NIPA1 gene and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog trigger neural degeneration in vitro and in vivo through a gain-of-function mechanism. J Neurosci, 28(51), 13938-51, 2008 PMCID:2660329

Bazalakova, MH, Wright, J, Schneble, EJ, McDonald, MP, Heilman, CJ, Levey, AI, Blakely, RD. Deficits in acetylcholine homeostasis, receptors and behaviors in choline transporter heterozygous mice. Genes Brain Behav, 6(5), 411-24, 2007

Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. All aglow about presynaptic receptor regulation of neurotransmitter transporters. Mol Pharmacol, 71(5), 1206-8, 2007

Dipace, C, Sung, U, Binda, F, Blakely, RD, Galli, A. Amphetamine induces a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent reduction in norepinephrine transporter surface expression linked to changes in syntaxin 1A/transporter complexes. Mol Pharmacol, 71(1), 230-9, 2007

Hahn, MK, Blakely, RD. The functional impact of SLC6 transporter genetic variation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 47, 401-41, 2007

Henry, LK, Meiler, J, Blakely, RD. Bound to be different: neurotransmitter transporters meet their bacterial cousins. Mol Interv, 7(6), 306-9, 2007

Mason, JN, Deecher, DC, Richmond, RL, Stack, G, Mahaney, PE, Trybulski, E, Winneker, RC, Blakely, RD. Desvenlafaxine succinate identifies novel antagonist binding determinants in the human norepinephrine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 323(2), 720-9, 2007

McDonald, PW, Hardie, SL, Jessen, TN, Carvelli, L, Matthies, DS, Blakely, RD. Vigorous motor activity in Caenorhabditis elegans requires efficient clearance of dopamine mediated by synaptic localization of the dopamine transporter DAT-1. J Neurosci, 27(51), 14216-27, 2007

Sung, U, Blakely, RD. Calcium-dependent interactions of the human norepinephrine transporter with syntaxin 1A. Mol Cell Neurosci, 34(2), 251-60, 2007 PMCID:1847414

Tomlinson, ID, Warnerment, MR, Mason, JN, Vergne, MJ, Hercules, DM, Blakely, RD, Rosenthal, SJ. Synthesis and characterization of a pegylated derivative of 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridin-4yl)-1H-indole (IDT199): a high affinity SERT ligand for conjugation to quantum dots. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 17(20), 5656-60, 2007

Wegner, AM, McConnell, JL, Blakely, RD, Wadzinski, BE. An automated fluorescence-based method for continuous assay of PP2A activity. Methods Mol Biol, 365, 61-9, 2007

Williams, JM, Owens, WA, Turner, GH, Saunders, C, Dipace, C, Blakely, RD, France, CP, Gore, JC, Daws, LC, Avison, MJ, Galli, A. Hypoinsulinemia regulates amphetamine-induced reverse transport of dopamine. PLoS Biol, 5(10), e274, 2007 PMCID:2020502

Zhu, CB, Steiner, JA, Munn, JL, Daws, LC, Hewlett, WA, Blakely, RD. Rapid stimulation of presynaptic serotonin transport by A(3) adenosine receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 322(1), 332-40, 2007

Bazalakova, MH, Blakely, RD. The high-affinity choline transporter: a critical protein for sustaining cholinergic signaling as revealed in studies of genetically altered mice. Handb Exp Pharmacol(175), 525-44, 2006

Binda, F, Lute, BJ, Dipace, C, Blakely, RD, Galli, A. The N-terminus of the norepinephrine transporter regulates the magnitude and selectivity of the transporter-associated leak current. Neuropharmacology, 50(3), 354-61, 2006

Carneiro, AM, Blakely, RD. Serotonin-, protein kinase C-, and Hic-5-associated redistribution of the platelet serotonin transporter. J Biol Chem, 281(34), 24769-80, 2006

Henry, LK, Defelice, LJ, Blakely, RD. Getting the message across: a recent transporter structure shows the way. Neuron, 49(6), 791-6, 2006

Henry, LK, Field, JR, Adkins, EM, Parnas, ML, Vaughan, RA, Zou, MF, Newman, AH, Blakely, RD. Tyr-95 and Ile-172 in transmembrane segments 1 and 3 of human serotonin transporters interact to establish high affinity recognition of antidepressants. J Biol Chem, 281(4), 2012-23, 2006

Iwamoto, H, Blakely, RD, De Felice, LJ. Na+, Cl-, and pH dependence of the human choline transporter (hCHT) in Xenopus oocytes: the proton inactivation hypothesis of hCHT in synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci, 26(39), 9851-9, 2006

Keller, NR, Diedrich, A, Appalsamy, M, Miller, LC, Caron, MG, McDonald, MP, Shelton, RC, Blakely, RD, Robertson, D. Norepinephrine transporter-deficient mice respond to anxiety producing and fearful environments with bradycardia and hypotension. Neuroscience, 139(3), 931-46, 2006

Matthies, DS, Fleming, PA, Wilkes, DM, Blakely, RD. The Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter CHO-1 sustains acetylcholine synthesis and motor function in an activity-dependent manner. J Neurosci, 26(23), 6200-12, 2006

Mazei-Robinson, MS, Blakely, RD. ADHD and the dopamine transporter: are there reasons to pay attention. Handb Exp Pharmacol(175), 373-415, 2006

McDonald, PW, Jessen, T, Field, JR, Blakely, RD. Dopamine signaling architecture in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 26(4-6), 593-618, 2006

Tomlinson, ID, Mason, JN, Blakely, RD, Rosenthal, SJ. High affinity inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT): novel biotinylated ligands for conjugation to quantum dots. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 16(17), 4664-7, 2006

Zhu, CB, Blakely, RD, Hewlett, WA. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate serotonin transporters. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(10), 2121-31, 2006

Blakely, RD, Defelice, LJ, Galli, A. Biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters: just when you thought you knew them. Physiology (Bethesda), 20, 225-31, 2005

Egli, RE, Kash, TL, Choo, K, Savchenko, V, Matthews, RT, Blakely, RD, Winder, DG. Norepinephrine modulates glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(4), 657-68, 2005

Hahn, MK, Mazei-Robison, MS, Blakely, RD. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human norepinephrine transporter gene affect expression, trafficking, antidepressant interaction, and protein kinase C regulation. Mol Pharmacol, 68(2), 457-66, 2005

Kahlig, KM, Binda, F, Khoshbouei, H, Blakely, RD, McMahon, DG, Javitch, JA, Galli, A. Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102(9), 3495-500, 2005 PMCID:549289

Mason, JN, Farmer, H, Tomlinson, ID, Schwartz, JW, Savchenko, V, DeFelice, LJ, Rosenthal, SJ, Blakely, RD. Novel fluorescence-based approaches for the study of biogenic amine transporter localization, activity, and regulation. J Neurosci Methods, 143(1), 3-25, 2005

Mason, JN, Tomlinson, ID, Rosenthal, SJ, Blakely, RD. Labeling cell-surface proteins via antibody quantum dot streptavidin conjugates. Methods Mol Biol, 303, 35-50, 2005

Mazei-Robison, MS, Blakely, RD. Expression studies of naturally occurring human dopamine transporter variants identifies a novel state of transporter inactivation associated with Val382Ala. Neuropharmacology, 49(6), 737-49, 2005

Mazei-Robison, MS, Couch, RS, Shelton, RC, Stein, MA, Blakely, RD. Sequence variation in the human dopamine transporter gene in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuropharmacology, 49(6), 724-36, 2005

Nass, R, Hahn, MK, Jessen, T, McDonald, PW, Carvelli, L, Blakely, RD. A genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for dopamine neuron insensitivity to 6-hydroxydopamine identifies dopamine transporter mutants impacting transporter biosynthesis and trafficking. J Neurochem, 94(3), 774-85, 2005

Prasad, HC, Zhu, CB, McCauley, JL, Samuvel, DJ, Ramamoorthy, S, Shelton, RC, Hewlett, WA, Sutcliffe, JS, Blakely, RD. Human serotonin transporter variants display altered sensitivity to protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102(32), 11545-50, 2005 PMCID:1183547

Sung, U, Jennings, JL, Link, AJ, Blakely, RD. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 333(3), 671-8, 2005

Sutcliffe, JS, Delahanty, RJ, Prasad, HC, McCauley, JL, Han, Q, Jiang, L, Li, C, Folstein, SE, Blakely, RD. Allelic heterogeneity at the serotonin transporter locus (SLC6A4) confers susceptibility to autism and rigid-compulsive behaviors. Am J Hum Genet, 77(2), 265-79, 2005 PMCID:1224529

Tomlinson, ID, Mason, JN, Blakely, RD, Rosenthal, SJ. Inhibitors of the serotonin transporter protein (SERT): the design and synthesis of biotinylated derivatives of 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridin-4-yl)-1H-indoles. High-affinity serotonergic ligands for conjugation with quantum dots. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 15(23), 5307-10, 2005

Tomlinson, ID, Mason, JN, Blakely, RD, Rosenthal, SJ. Peptide-conjugated quantum dots: imaging the angiotensin type 1 receptor in living cells. Methods Mol Biol, 303, 51-60, 2005

Zhu, CB, Carneiro, AM, Dostmann, WR, Hewlett, WA, Blakely, RD. p38 MAPK activation elevates serotonin transport activity via a trafficking-independent, protein phosphatase 2A-dependent process. J Biol Chem, 280(16), 15649-58, 2005

Carvelli, L, McDonald, PW, Blakely, RD, Defelice, LJ. Dopamine transporters depolarize neurons by a channel mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101(45), 16046-51, 2004 PMCID:528740

Ferguson, SM, Bazalakova, M, Savchenko, V, Tapia, JC, Wright, J, Blakely, RD. Lethal impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101(23), 8762-7, 2004 PMCID:423269

Ferguson, SM, Blakely, RD. The choline transporter resurfaces: new roles for synaptic vesicles. Mol Interv, 4(1), 22-37, 2004

McCauley, JL, Olson, LM, Dowd, M, Amin, T, Steele, A, Blakely, RD, Folstein, SE, Haines, JL, Sutcliffe, JS. Linkage and association analysis at the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) locus in a rigid-compulsive subset of autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 127B(1), 104-12, 2004

Zhu, CB, Hewlett, WA, Feoktistov, I, Biaggioni, I, Blakely, RD. Adenosine receptor, protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin transporters involves both transporter trafficking and activation. Mol Pharmacol, 65(6), 1462-74, 2004

Zhu, CB, Hewlett, WA, Francis, SH, Corbin, JD, Blakely, RD. Stimulation of serotonin transport by the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil. Eur J Pharmacol, 504(1-2), 1-6, 2004

Ferguson, SM, Savchenko, V, Apparsundaram, S, Zwick, M, Wright, J, Heilman, CJ, Yi, H, Levey, AI, Blakely, RD. Vesicular localization and activity-dependent trafficking of presynaptic choline transporters. J Neurosci, 23(30), 9697-709, 2003

Hahn, MK, Robertson, D, Blakely, RD. A mutation in the human norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) associated with orthostatic intolerance disrupts surface expression of mutant and wild-type transporters. J Neurosci, 23(11), 4470-8, 2003

Henry, LK, Adkins, EM, Han, Q, Blakely, RD. Serotonin and cocaine-sensitive inactivation of human serotonin transporters by methanethiosulfonates targeted to transmembrane domain I. J Biol Chem, 278(39), 37052-63, 2003

Nass, R, Blakely, RD. The Caenorhabditis elegans dopaminergic system: opportunities for insights into dopamine transport and neurodegeneration. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 43, 521-44, 2003

Savchenko, V, Sung, U, Blakely, RD. Cell surface trafficking of the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter revealed with an ectodomain antibody. Mol Cell Neurosci, 24(4), 1131-50, 2003

Schwartz, JW, Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. Binding and transport in norepinephrine transporters. Real-time, spatially resolved analysis in single cells using a fluorescent substrate. J Biol Chem, 278(11), 9768-77, 2003

Sung, U, Apparsundaram, S, Galli, A, Kahlig, KM, Savchenko, V, Schroeter, S, Quick, MW, Blakely, RD. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. J Neurosci, 23(5), 1697-709, 2003

Volpicelli-Daley, LA, Hrabovska, A, Duysen, EG, Ferguson, SM, Blakely, RD, Lockridge, O, Levey, AI. Altered striatal function and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol, 64(6), 1309-16, 2003

Bauman, PA, Blakely, RD. Determinants within the C-terminus of the human norepinephrine transporter dictate transporter trafficking, stability, and activity. Arch Biochem Biophys, 404(1), 80-91, 2002

Garland, EM, Hahn, MK, Ketch, TP, Keller, NR, Kim, CH, Kim, KS, Biaggioni, I, Shannon, JR, Blakely, RD, Robertson, D. Genetic basis of clinical catecholamine disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 971, 506-14, 2002

Hahn, MK, Blakely, RD. Monoamine transporter gene structure and polymorphisms in relation to psychiatric and other complex disorders. Pharmacogenomics J, 2(4), 217-35, 2002

Nass, R, Hall, DH, Miller, DM, Blakely, RD. Neurotoxin-induced degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99(5), 3264-9, 2002 PMCID:122507

Rosenthal, SJ, Tomlinson, I, Adkins, EM, Schroeter, S, Adams, S, Swafford, L, McBride, J, Wang, Y, DeFelice, LJ, Blakely, RD. Targeting cell surface receptors with ligand-conjugated nanocrystals. J Am Chem Soc, 124(17), 4586-94, 2002

Adkins, EM, Barker, EL, Blakely, RD. Interactions of tryptamine derivatives with serotonin transporter species variants implicate transmembrane domain I in substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol, 59(3), 514-23, 2001

Apparsundaram, S, Ferguson, SM, Blakely, RD. Molecular cloning and characterization of a murine hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter. Biochem Soc Trans, 29(Pt 6), 711-6, 2001

Apparsundaram, S, Sung, U, Price, RD, Blakely, RD. Trafficking-dependent and -independent pathways of neurotransmitter transporter regulation differentially involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase revealed in studies of insulin modulation of norepinephrine transport in SK-N-SH cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 299(2), 666-77, 2001

Blakely, RD. Physiological genomics of antidepressant targets: keeping the periphery in mind. J Neurosci, 21(21), 8319-23, 2001

Blakely, RD. Neurobiology. Dopamine''s reversal of fortune. Science, 293(5539), 2407-9, 2001

Nass, R, Miller, DM, Blakely, RD. C. elegans: a novel pharmacogenetic model to study Parkinson''s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 7(3), 185-191, 2001

Robertson, D, Flattem, N, Tellioglu, T, Carson, R, Garland, E, Shannon, JR, Jordan, J, Jacob, G, Blakely, RD, Biaggioni, I. Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 940, 527-43, 2001

Apparsundaram, S, Ferguson, SM, George, AL, Blakely, RD. Molecular cloning of a human, hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 276(3), 862-7, 2000

Bauman, AL, Apparsundaram, S, Ramamoorthy, S, Wadzinski, BE, Vaughan, RA, Blakely, RD. Cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A. J Neurosci, 20(20), 7571-8, 2000

Blakely, RD, Bauman, AL. Biogenic amine transporters: regulation in flux. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 10(3), 328-36, 2000

Flattem, NL, Blakely, RD. Modified structure of the human serotonin transporter promoter. Mol Psychiatry, 5(1), 110-5, 2000

Schroeter, S, Apparsundaram, S, Wiley, RG, Miner, LH, Sesack, SR, Blakely, RD. Immunolocalization of the cocaine- and antidepressant-sensitive l-norepinephrine transporter. J Comp Neurol, 420(2), 211-32, 2000

Shannon, JR, Flattem, NL, Jordan, J, Jacob, G, Black, BK, Biaggioni, I, Blakely, RD, Robertson, D. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency. N Engl J Med, 342(8), 541-9, 2000

Barker, EL, Moore, KR, Rakhshan, F, Blakely, RD. Transmembrane domain I contributes to the permeation pathway for serotonin and ions in the serotonin transporter. J Neurosci, 19(12), 4705-17, 1999

Ramamoorthy, S, Blakely, RD. Phosphorylation and sequestration of serotonin transporters differentially modulated by psychostimulants. Science, 285(5428), 763-6, 1999

Robertson, D, Biaggioni, I, Ertl, AC, Robertson, RM, Diedrich, A, Blakely, RD, Flattem, N, Shannon, JR. Orthostatic intolerance: emerging genetic and environmental etiologies. J Gravit Physiol, 6(1), P51-4, 1999

Apparsundaram, S, Galli, A, DeFelice, LJ, Hartzell, HC, Blakely, RD. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: I. protein kinase C-linked muscarinic receptors influence transport capacity and transporter density in SK-N-SH cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 287(2), 733-43, 1998

Apparsundaram, S, Schroeter, S, Giovanetti, E, Blakely, RD. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: II. PKC-modulated surface expression of human norepinephrine transporter proteins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 287(2), 744-51, 1998

Barker, EL, Blakely, RD. Structural determinants of neurotransmitter transport using cross-species chimeras: studies on serotonin transporter. Methods Enzymol, 296, 475-98, 1998

Barker, EL, Perlman, MA, Adkins, EM, Houlihan, WJ, Pristupa, ZB, Niznik, HB, Blakely, RD. High affinity recognition of serotonin transporter antagonists defined by species-scanning mutagenesis. An aromatic residue in transmembrane domain I dictates species-selective recognition of citalopram and mazindol. J Biol Chem, 273(31), 19459-68, 1998

Blakely, RD, Apparsundaram, S. Structural diversity in the catecholamine transporter gene family: molecular cloning and characterization of an L-epinephrine transporter from bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. Adv Pharmacol, 42, 206-10, 1998

Blakely, RD, Ramamoorthy, S, Schroeter, S, Qian, Y, Apparsundaram, S, Galli, A, DeFelice, LJ. Regulated phosphorylation and trafficking of antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter proteins. Biol Psychiatry, 44(3), 169-78, 1998

Fritz, JD, Jayanthi, LD, Thoreson, MA, Blakely, RD. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the murine norepinephrine transporter. J Neurochem, 70(6), 2241-51, 1998

Galli, A, Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. Patch-clamp and amperometric recordings from norepinephrine transporters: channel activity and voltage-dependent uptake. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95(22), 13260-5, 1998 PMCID:23775

Justice, JB, Danek, KS, Kable, JW, Barker, EL, Blakely, RD. Voltammetric approaches to kinetics and mechanism of the norepinephrine transporter. Adv Pharmacol, 42, 191-4, 1998

Ramamoorthy, S, Giovanetti, E, Qian, Y, Blakely, RD. Phosphorylation and regulation of antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporters. J Biol Chem, 273(4), 2458-66, 1998

Ramamoorthy, S, Melikian, HE, Qian, Y, Blakely, RD. Biosynthesis, N-glycosylation, and surface trafficking of biogenic amine transporter proteins. Methods Enzymol, 296, 347-70, 1998

Apparsundaram, S, Moore, KR, Malone, MD, Hartzell, HC, Blakely, RD. Molecular cloning and characterization of an L-epinephrine transporter from sympathetic ganglia of the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. J Neurosci, 17(8), 2691-702, 1997

Bradley, CC, Blakely, RD. Alternative splicing of the human serotonin transporter gene. J Neurochem, 69(4), 1356-67, 1997

Galli, A, Petersen, CI, deBlaquiere, M, Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. Drosophila serotonin transporters have voltage-dependent uptake coupled to a serotonin-gated ion channel. J Neurosci, 17(10), 3401-11, 1997

Qian, Y, Galli, A, Ramamoorthy, S, Risso, S, DeFelice, LJ, Blakely, RD. Protein kinase C activation regulates human serotonin transporters in HEK-293 cells via altered cell surface expression. J Neurosci, 17(1), 45-57, 1997

Schroeter, S, Levey, AI, Blakely, RD. Polarized expression of the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter in epinephrine-synthesizing chromaffin cells of the rat adrenal gland. Mol Cell Neurosci, 9(3), 170-84, 1997

Barker, EL, Blakely, RD. Identification of a single amino acid, phenylalanine 586, that is responsible for high affinity interactions of tricyclic antidepressants with the human serotonin transporter. Mol Pharmacol, 50(4), 957-65, 1996

Burnette, WB, Bailey, MD, Kukoyi, S, Blakely, RD, Trowbridge, CG, Justice, JB. Human norepinephrine transporter kinetics using rotating disk electrode voltammetry. Anal Chem, 68(17), 2932-8, 1996

DeFelice, LJ, Blakely, RD. Pore models for transporters. Biophys J, 70(2), 579-80, 1996 PMCID:1224960

Galli, A, Blakely, RD, DeFelice, LJ. Norepinephrine transporters have channel modes of conduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93(16), 8671-6, 1996 PMCID:38731

Melikian, HE, Ramamoorthy, S, Tate, CG, Blakely, RD. Inability to N-glycosylate the human norepinephrine transporter reduces protein stability, surface trafficking, and transport activity but not ligand recognition. Mol Pharmacol, 50(2), 266-76, 1996

Risso, S, DeFelice, LJ, Blakely, RD. Sodium-dependent GABA-induced currents in GAT1-transfected HeLa cells. J Physiol, 490 ( Pt 3), 691-702, 1996 PMCID:1158707

Saltarelli, MD, Bauman, AL, Moore, KR, Bradley, CC, Blakely, RD. Expression of the rat brain creatine transporter in situ and in transfected HeLa cells. Dev Neurosci, 18(5-6), 524-34, 1996

Schroeter, S, Blakely, RD. Drug targets in the embryo. Studies on the cocaine- and antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 801, 239-55, 1996

Galli, A, DeFelice, LJ, Duke, BJ, Moore, KR, Blakely, RD. Sodium-dependent norepinephrine-induced currents in norepinephrine-transporter-transfected HEK-293 cells blocked by cocaine and antidepressants. J Exp Biol, 198(Pt 10), 2197-212, 1995

Qian, Y, Melikian, HE, Rye, DB, Levey, AI, Blakely, RD. Identification and characterization of antidepressant-sensitive serotonin transporter proteins using site-specific antibodies. J Neurosci, 15(2), 1261-74, 1995

Barker, EL, Kimmel, HL, Blakely, RD. Chimeric human and rat serotonin transporters reveal domains involved in recognition of transporter ligands. Mol Pharmacol, 46(5), 799-807, 1994

Blakely, RD, De Felice, LJ, Hartzell, HC. Molecular physiology of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. J Exp Biol, 196, 263-81, 1994

Melikian, HE, McDonald, JK, Gu, H, Rudnick, G, Moore, KR, Blakely, RD. Human norepinephrine transporter. Biosynthetic studies using a site-directed polyclonal antibody. J Biol Chem, 269(16), 12290-7, 1994

Moore, KR, Blakely, RD. Restriction site-independent formation of chimeras from homologous neurotransmitter-transporter cDNAs. Biotechniques, 17(1), 130-5, 137, 1994

Blakely, RD, Moore, KR, Qian, Y. Tails of serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: deletions and chimeras retain function. Soc Gen Physiol Ser, 48, 283-300, 1993

Blakely, RD. Molecular cloning and characterization of neurotransmitter transporters. NIDA Res Monogr, 126, 66-83, 1992

Blakely, RD, Berson, HE. Molecular biology of serotonin receptors and transporters. Clin Neuropharmacol, 15 Suppl 1 Pt A, 351A-352A, 1992

Blakely, RD, Berson, HE, Fremeau, RT, Caron, MG, Peek, MM, Prince, HK, Bradley, CC. Cloning and expression of a functional serotonin transporter from rat brain. Nature, 354(6348), 66-70, 1991

Blakely, RD, Clark, JA, Rudnick, G, Amara, SG. Vaccinia-T7 RNA polymerase expression system: evaluation for the expression cloning of plasma membrane transporters. Anal Biochem, 194(2), 302-8, 1991

Pacholczyk, T, Blakely, RD, Amara, SG. Expression cloning of a cocaine- and antidepressant-sensitive human noradrenaline transporter. Nature, 350(6316), 350-4, 1991

Pacholczyk, T, Blakely, RD, Amara, SG. A device to rapidly core out tissue culture plates for autoradiographic visualization of cells transfected with cDNA libraries. Biotechniques, 9(5), 556, 558, 1990

Blakely, RD, Coyle, JT. The neurobiology of N-acetylaspartylglutamate. Int Rev Neurobiol, 30, 39-100, 1988

Blakely, RD, Robinson, MB, Amara, SG. Expression of neurotransmitter transport from rat brain mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85(24), 9846-50, 1988 PMCID:282878

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