Biomedical Research Education & Training
Faculty Member

Wadzinski, Brian E., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Pharmacology

Lab Url: http://pharmacology.mc.vanderbilt.edu/Faculty/Wadzinski_Lab/index.htm

Phone Number: (615) 343-2080

Email Address: brian.wadzinski@vanderbilt.edu

Wadzinski, Brian's picture
Academic history
B.Sc., University of Wisconsin-Madison
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison
Post-Doc, National Jewish Center for Immunology and

Office Address   Mailing Address

424-B Robinson Research Building

424-B Robinson Research Building 23rd Avenue South at Pierce 37232-6600


Research Keywords
Protein Phosphatases, Signal Transduction

Research Specialty
Structure, function, and regulation of protein serine/threonine phosphatases

Research Description
The integrated actions of both protein kinases and phosphatases govern the phosphorylation state of key intracellular proteins which are crucial for normal cellular function. Although less attention has been given to the protein serine/threonine phosphatases than to the serine/threonine kinases, it is nonetheless clear that this group of proteins plays an integral role in the control of cell growth and differentiation. Our overall research program is the study of cellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPs); however, our studies have focused on PP2A-like enzymes. This family of holoenzymes has been implicated in many facets of cellular function including regulation of metabolic enzymes, cell-surface receptors, cytosolic protein kinases, and transcription factors. Moreover, PP2A itself is regulated in many ways which include association with regulatory subunits, activation or inactivation by associated proteins, and post-translational modifications. We are using multiple complementary approaches including biochemical, immunological, and molecular biology techniques to determine the structure, function, cellular localization, and regulation of PP2A-like enzymes. Particular emphasis has been placed on studying PP2A multi-protein complexes as a first step towards understanding in molecular detail the way phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reactions control cell signalling pathways. Our studies have revealed the existence of protein kinase/PP2A signaling modules as a new paradigm for the control of various intracellular signaling cascades.

Publications
Guo, S, Burnette, R, Zhao, L, Vanderford, NL, Poitout, V, Hagman, DK, Henderson, E, Ozcan, S, Wadzinski, BE, Stein, R. The stability and transactivation potential of the mammalian MafA transcription factor are regulated by serine 65 phosphorylation. J Biol Chem, 284(2), 759-65, 2009 PMCID:2613637

McConnell, JL, Wadzinski, BE. Targeting protein serine/threonine phosphatases for drug development. Mol Pharmacol, 75(6), 1249-61, 2009 PMCID:2684880

Wang, N, Leung, HT, Pak, WL, Carl, YT, Wadzinski, BE, Shieh, BH. Role of protein phosphatase 2A in regulating the visual signaling in Drosophila. J Neurosci, 28(6), 1444-51, 2008 PMCID:2275662

McConnell, JL, Gomez, RJ, McCorvey, LR, Law, BK, Wadzinski, BE. Identification of a PP2A-interacting protein that functions as a negative regulator of phosphatase activity in the ATM/ATR signaling pathway. Oncogene, 26(41), 6021-30, 2007

Adams, DG, Wadzinski, BE. Isolation and Characterization of PP2A Holoenzymes Containing FLAG-Tagged B Subunits. Methods Mol Biol, 365, 101-12, 2006

Bridges, D, MacDonald, JA, Wadzinski, B, Moorhead, GB. Identification and characterization of D-AKAP1 as a major adipocyte PKA and PP1 binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 346(1), 351-7, 2006

Codreanu, SG, Adams, DG, Dawson, ES, Wadzinski, BE, Liebler, DC. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity by selective electrophile alkylation damage. Biochemistry, 45(33), 10020-9, 2006

Fritz, A, Brayer, KJ, McCormick, N, Adams, DG, Wadzinski, BE, Vaillancourt, RR. Phosphorylation of serine 526 is required for MEKK3 activity, and association with 14-3-3 blocks dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem, 281(10), 6236-45, 2006

Khoo, MS, Li, J, Singh, MV, Yang, Y, Kannankeril, P, Wu, Y, Grueter, CE, Guan, X, Oddis, CV, Zhang, R, Mendes, L, Ni, G, Madu, EC, Yang, J, Bass, M, Gomez, RJ, Wadzinski, BE, Olson, EN, Colbran, RJ, Anderson, ME. Death, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmias are increased by calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin cardiomyopathy. Circulation, 114(13), 1352-9, 2006

Veluthakal, R, Wadzinski, BE, Kowluru, A. Localization of a nuclear serine/threonine protein phosphatase in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells: potential regulation by IL-1beta. Apoptosis, 11(8), 1401-11, 2006

Veluthakal, R, Wadzinski, BE, Kowluru, A. Localization of a nuclear serine/threonine protein phosphatase in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells: potential regulation by IL-1beta. Apoptosis, 2006

Wegner, AM, McConnell, JL, Blakely, RD, Wadzinski, BE. An Automated Fluorescence-Based Method for Continuous Assay of PP2A Activity. Methods Mol Biol, 365, 61-70, 2006

Adams, DG, Coffee, RL, Zhang, H, Pelech, S, Strack, S, Wadzinski, BE. Positive regulation of Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling by protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A holoenzymes. J Biol Chem, 280(52), 42644-54, 2005

Kray, AE, Carter, RS, Pennington, KN, Gomez, RJ, Sanders, LE, Llanes, JM, Khan, WN, Ballard, DW, Wadzinski, BE. Positive regulation of IkappaB kinase signaling by protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem, 280(43), 35974-82, 2005

Van Kanegan, MJ, Adams, DG, Wadzinski, BE, Strack, S. Distinct protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimers modulate growth factor signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Akt. J Biol Chem, 280(43), 36029-36, 2005

Zhang, X, Ozawa, Y, Lee, H, Wen, YD, Tan, TH, Wadzinski, BE, Seto, E. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) activity is regulated by interaction with protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. Genes Dev, 19(7), 827-39, 2005 PMCID:1074320

Anderson, K.A., Noeldner, P.K., Reece, K., Wadzinski, B.E., Means, A.R.. Regulation and function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV/protein serinethreonine phosphatase 2A signaling complex. J.Biol. Chem. , 279, 31708-31716, 2004

Anderson, KA, Noeldner, PK, Reece, K, Wadzinski, BE, Means, AR. Regulation and function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV/protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A signaling complex. J Biol Chem, 279(30), 31708-16, 2004

Garriga, J, Jayaraman, AL, Lim??n, A, Jayadeva, G, Sotillo, E, Truongcao, M, Patsialou, A, Wadzinski, BE, Gra??a, X. A dynamic equilibrium between CDKs and PP2A modulates phosphorylation of pRB, p107 and p130. Cell Cycle, 3(10), 1320-30, 2004

Garriga, J., Jayaraman, A.L., Limon, A., Jayadeva, G., Sotillo, E., Truongcao, M., Patsialou, A., Wadzinski, B.E., Grana, X.. Cell Cycle [ in press ]. , 2004

Wells, L, Kreppel, LK, Comer, FI, Wadzinski, BE, Hart, GW. O-GlcNAc transferase is in a functional complex with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem, 279(37), 38466-70, 2004

Wells, L., Kreppel, L.K., Comer, F.I., Wadzinski, B.E., Hart, G.W.. O-GlcNAc transferase is in a functional complex with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits . J. Biol. Chem, 2004

Colbran, Roger J, Carmody, Leigh C, Bauman, Patricia A, Wadzinski, Brian E, Bass, Martha A. Analysis of specific interactions of native protein phosphatase 1 isoforms with targeting subunits. Methods Enzymol, 366, 156-75, 2003

Dagda, Ruben K, Zaucha, Julie A, Wadzinski, Brian E, Strack, Stefan. A developmentally regulated, neuron-specific splice variant of the variable subunit Bbeta targets protein phosphatase 2A to mitochondria and modulates apoptosis. J Biol Chem, 278(27), 24976-85, 2003

Kabashima, Tsutomu, Kawaguchi, Takumi, Wadzinski, Brian E, Uyeda, Kosaku. Xylulose 5-phosphate mediates glucose-induced lipogenesis by xylulose 5-phosphate-activated protein phosphatase in rat liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100(9), 5107-12, 2003 PMCID:154306

Kloeker, Susanne, Reed, Robin, McConnell, Jamie L, Chang, Dennis, Tran, Kim, Westphal, Ryan S, Law, Brian K, Colbran, Roger J, Kamoun, Malek, Campbell, Kerry S, Wadzinski, Brian E. Parallel purification of three catalytic subunits of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A family (PP2A(C), PP4(C), and PP6(C)) and analysis of the interaction of PP2A(C) with alpha4 protein. Protein Expr Purif, 31(1), 19-33, 2003

Strayhorn, W David, Wadzinski, Brian E. A novel in vitro assay for deubiquitination of I kappa B alpha. Arch Biochem Biophys, 400(1), 76-84, 2002

Strayhorn, W.D., Wadzinski, B.E.. A novel in vitro assay for deubiquitination of IkB??. Arch. Biochem. Biophys, 400, 76-84, 2002

Chiang, C W, Harris, G, Ellig, C, Masters, S C, Subramanian, R, Shenolikar, S, Wadzinski, B E, Yang, E. Protein phosphatase 2A activates the proapoptotic function of BAD in interleukin- 3-dependent lymphoid cells by a mechanism requiring 14-3-3 dissociation. Blood, 97(5), 1289-97, 2001

Chiang, C.-W., Harris, G., Ellig, C., Masters, S.C., Subramanian, R., Shenolikar, S., Wadzinski, B.E., and Yang, E. Protein phosphatase 2A activates the proapoptotic function of BAD in interleukin-3-dependent lymphoid cells by a mechanism requiring 14-3-3 dissociation. Blood, 97, 1289-1297, 2001

Wada, T, Miyata, T, Inagi, R, Nangaku, M, Wagatsuma, M, Suzuki, D, Wadzinski, B E, Okubo, K, Kurokawa, K. Cloning and characterization of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 from mesangial cells. J Am Soc Nephrol, 12(12), 2601-8, 2001

Wada, T., Miyata, T., Inagi, R., Nangaku, M., Wagatsuma, M., Suzuki, D., Wadzinski, B.E., Okubo, K., and Kurokawa, K. Cloning and characterization of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 from mesangial cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol, 2001

Yang, J, Fan, G H, Wadzinski, B E, Sakurai, H, Richmond, A. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with and directly dephosphorylates RelA. J Biol Chem, 276(51), 47828-33, 2001 PMCID:2665282

Bauman, A L, Apparsundaram, S, Ramamoorthy, S, Wadzinski, B E, Vaughan, R A, Blakely, R D. Cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A. J Neurosci, 20(20), 7571-8, 2000

Bauman, A.L., Apparsundaram, S., Ramamoorthy, S., Wadzinski, B.E., Vaughan, R.A., and Blakely, R.D. Cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A. J. Neurosci, 20, 7571-7578, 2000

Liu M, Parker LL, Wadzinski BE and Shieh BH. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem, 275(16), 12194-12199, 2000

Liu, M, Parker, L L, Wadzinski, B E, Shieh, B H. Reversible phosphorylation of the signal transduction complex in Drosophila photoreceptors. J Biol Chem, 275(16), 12194-9, 2000

Bryant JC, Westphal RS and Wadzinski BE. Methylated C- terminal leucine residue of PP2A catalytic subunit is important for binding of regulatory B-alpha subunit. Biochem J, 339(2), 241-246, 1999

Bryant, J C, Westphal, R S, Wadzinski, B E. Methylated C-terminal leucine residue of PP2A catalytic subunit is important for binding of regulatory Balpha subunit. Biochem J, 339 ( Pt 2), 241-6, 1999 PMCID:1220151

Filali, M., Li, S., Kim, H.W., Wadzinski, B.E., and Kamoun, M. Identification of a Type 6 Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatase Regulated by Interleukin-2 Stimulation. J. Cell. Biochem., 73, 153-163, 1999

Filali, M., li, S., Kim, H.W., Wadzinski, B.E., Kamoun, M.. Identification of a type 6 protein ser/thr phosphatase regulated by interleukin-2 stimulation . J Cell Biochem., 73, 153-163, 1999

Kloeker, S, Wadzinski, B E. Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. J Biol Chem, 274(9), 5339-47, 1999

Kloeker, S. and Wadzinski, B.E. Purification and Identification of a Novel Subunit of Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatase 4. J. Biol. Chem., 274, 5339-5347, 1999

MacMillan, L B, Bass, M A, Cheng, N, Howard, E F, Tamura, M, Strack, S, Wadzinski, B E, Colbran, R J. Brain actin-associated protein phosphatase 1 holoenzymes containing spinophilin, neurabin, and selected catalytic subunit isoforms. J Biol Chem, 274(50), 35845-54, 1999

MacMillan, L.B., Bass, M.A., Cheng, N., Howard, E.F., Tamura, M., Strack, S., Wadzinski, B.E., and Colbran, R.J. Brain Actin-Associated Protein Phosphatase 1 Holoenzyme Containing Spinophilin, Neurabin and Selected Catalytic Subunit Isoforms.. J. Biol. Chem., 274, 35845-35854, 1999

Price, N.E, Wadzinski, B.E., Mumby, M.C. . An anchoring factor targets protein phosphatase 2A to brain microtubules. Mol. Brain Res. , 73, 68-77, 1999

Price, N.E., Wadzinski, B.E., and Mumby, M.C. An Anchoring Factor Targets Protein Phosphatase 2A to Brain Microtubules. Mol. Brain Res., 73, 68-77., 1999

Strack S, Kini S, Ebner FF, Wadzinski BE and Colbran RJ. Differential cellular and subcellular localization of protein phosphatase 1 isoforms in brain. J Comp Neurol, 413(3), 373-384, 1999

Strack, S, Chang, D, Zaucha, J A, Colbran, R J, Wadzinski, B E. Cloning and characterization of B delta, a novel regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. FEBS Lett, 460(3), 462-6, 1999

Strack, S, Kini, S, Ebner, F F, Wadzinski, B E, Colbran, R J. Differential cellular and subcellular localization of protein phosphatase 1 isoforms in brain. J Comp Neurol, 413(3), 373-84, 1999

Strack, S., Chang, D., Zaucha, J.A., Colbran, R.J., and Wadzinski, B.E. Cloning and Characterization of Ba Novel Regulatory Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A. FEBS Lett., 460, 462-466, 1999

Westphal, R S, Coffee, R L, Marotta, A, Pelech, S L, Wadzinski, B E. Identification of kinase-phosphatase signaling modules composed of p70 S6 kinase-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and p21-activated kinase-PP2A. J Biol Chem, 274(2), 687-92, 1999

Westphal, R.S., Coffee, R.L., Jr., Morratta, T., Pelech, S., and Wadzinski, B.E. Identification of Kinase/Phosphatase Signaling Modules Composed of p70S6 Kinase-Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and p21-Activated Kinase-PP2A. J. Biol.Chem., 274, 687-692, 1999

Strack S, Zaucha JA, Ebner FF, Colbran RJ and Wadzinski BE. Brain protein phosphatase 2A: developmental regulation and distinct cellular and subcellular localization by B subunits. J Comp Neurol, 392, 515-527, 1998

Strack, S, Zaucha, J A, Ebner, F F, Colbran, R J, Wadzinski, B E. Brain protein phosphatase 2A: developmental regulation and distinct cellular and subcellular localization by B subunits. J Comp Neurol, 392(4), 515-27, 1998

Westphal RS, Anderson KA, Means AR and Wadzinski BE. A signaling complex of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV and protein phosphatase 2A. Science, 280, 1258-1260, 1998

Westphal, R S, Anderson, K A, Means, A R, Wadzinski, B E. A signaling complex of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV and protein phosphatase 2A. Science, 280(5367), 1258-61, 1998

Zaucha JA, Westphal RS and Wadzinski BE. Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulatory Subunits: cDNA Cloning and Analysis of mRNA Expression. Methods in Molecular Biology, 93, 279-291, 1998

Zaucha, J A, Westphal, R S, Wadzinski, B E. protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits. cDNA cloning and analysis of mRNA expression. Methods Mol Biol, 93, 279-91, 1998

Colbran, R J, Bass, M A, McNeill, R B, Bollen, M, Zhao, S, Wadzinski, B E, Strack, S. Association of brain protein phosphatase 1 with cytoskeletal targeting/regulatory subunits. J Neurochem, 69(3), 920-9, 1997

Colbran, R.J., Bass, M.A., McNeill, R.B., Bollen, M., Zhao, S., Wadzinski, B.E., and Strack, S. Association of Brain Protein Phosphatase 1 with Cytoskeletal Targeting/Regulatory Subunits.. J. Neurochem., 69, 920-929, 1997

Kloeker, S, Bryant, J C, Strack, S, Colbran, R J, Wadzinski, B E. Carboxymethylation of nuclear protein serine/threonine phosphatase X. Biochem J, 327 ( Pt 2), 481-6, 1997 PMCID:1218819

Kloeker, S., Bryant, J.C., Strack, S., Colbran, R.J., and Wadzinski, B.E. Carboxymethylation of Nuclear Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatase X. Biochem. J., 327, 481-486, 1997

Strack S, Westphal RS, Colbran RJ, Ebner FF and Wadzinski BE. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 and 2A associate with and dephosphorylate neurofilaments. Mol Brain Res , 49, 15-28, 1997

Strack, S, Barban, M A, Wadzinski, B E, Colbran, R J. Differential inactivation of postsynaptic density-associated and soluble Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. J Neurochem, 68(5), 2119-28, 1997

Strack, S, Westphal, R S, Colbran, R J, Ebner, F F, Wadzinski, B E. Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 and 2A associate with and dephosphorylate neurofilaments. Brain Res Mol Brain Res, 49(1-2), 15-28, 1997

Strack, S., Barban, M.A., Wadzinski, B.E., and Colbran, R.J. Differential Inactivation of Postsynaptic Density-Associated and Soluble Ca+2/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II by Protein Phosphatases 1 and 2A. J. Neurochem., 68, 2119-2128, 1997

Strack, S, Wadzinski, B E, Ebner, F F. Localization of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the rat. J Comp Neurol, 375(1), 66-76, 1996

Strack, S., Wadzinski, B.E., and Ebner, F.F. Localization of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Phosphatase, Calcineurin, in the Hindbrain and Spinal Cord of the Rat. J. Comp. Neurol., 375, 66-76, 1996

Peruski, L.F., Jr., Wadzinski, B.E., and Johnson, G.L. Analysis of the Multiplicity, Structure, and Function of Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatases. Advances in Protein Phosphatases , 7, 9-30, 1993

Wadzinski, B E, Wheat, W H, Jaspers, S, Peruski, L F, Lickteig, R L, Johnson, G L, Klemm, D J. Nuclear protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates protein kinase A-phosphorylated CREB and regulates CREB transcriptional stimulation. Mol Cell Biol, 13(5), 2822-34, 1993 PMCID:359667

Wadzinski, B.E., Wheat, W.H., Jasper, S., Peruski, L.F., Jr., Lickteig, R.L., Johnson, G.L., and Klemm, D.J. Nuclear Protein Phosphatase 2A Dephosphorylates Protein Kinase A-Phosphorylated CREB and Regulates CREB Transcriptional Stimulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. , 13, 2822-2834, 1993

Wadzinski, B E, Eisfelder, B J, Peruski, L F, Mumby, M C, Johnson, G L. NH2-terminal modification of the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit allows functional expression in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem, 267(24), 16883-8, 1992

Wadzinski, B.E., Eisfelder, B.J., Peruski, L.F., Jr., Mumby, M.C., and Johnson, G.L. NH2-terminal Modification of the Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit Allows Functional Expression in Mammalian Cells. J. Biol. Chem., 267, 16883-16888, 1992

Devaskar, S, Zahm, D S, Holtzclaw, L, Chundu, K, Wadzinski, B E. Developmental regulation of the distribution of rat brain insulin-insensitive (Glut 1) glucose transporter. Endocrinology, 129(3), 1530-40, 1991

Devaskar, S., Zahm, D.S., Holtzclaw, L., Chundu, K., and Wadzinski, B.E. Developmental Regulation of the Distribution of Rat Brain Insulin-Insensitive (Glut1) Glucose Transporter. Endocrinology, 129, 1530-1540, 1991

Wadzinski, B E, Heasley, L E, Johnson, G L. Multiplicity of protein serine-threonine phosphatases in PC12 pheochromocytoma and FTO-2B hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem, 265(35), 21504-8, 1990

Wadzinski, B E, Shanahan, M F, Seamon, K B, Ruoho, A E. Localization of the forskolin photolabelling site within the monosaccharide transporter of human erythrocytes. Biochem J, 272(1), 151-8, 1990 PMCID:1149670

Wadzinski, B.E., Heasley, L.E., and Johnson, G.L. Multiplicity of Protein Serine-Threonine Phosphatases in PC12 Pheochromocytoma and FTO-2B Hepatoma Cells. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 21504-21508, 1990

Wadzinski, B.E., Shanahan, M.F., Seamon, K.B., and Ruoho, A.E. Localization of the Forskolin Photolabelling Site Within the Monosaccharide Transporter of Human Erythrocytes. Biochem. J., 272, 151-158, 1990

Zorzano, A., Wilkinson, W., Kotliar, N., Thoidis, G., Wadzinski, B.E., Ruoho, A.E., and Pilch, P.F. Insulin-regulated Glucose Uptake in Rat Adipocytes is Mediated by Two Transporter Isoforms Present in at Least Two Vesicle Populations. J. Biol. Chem. , 264, 12358-12363, 19893

Wadzinski, B E, Shanahan, M F, Clark, R B, Ruoho, A E. Identification of the glucose transporter in mammalian cell membranes with a 125I-forskolin photoaffinity label. Biochem J, 255(3), 983-90, 1988 PMCID:1135338

Wadzinski, B.E., Shanahan, M.F., Clark, R.B., and Ruoho, A.E. Identification of the Glucose Transporter in Mammalian Cell Membranes with a 125I-Forskolin Photoaffinity Label. Biochem. J., 255, 983-990, 1988

Wadzinski, B E, Shanahan, M F, Ruoho, A E. Derivatization of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter using a novel forskolin photoaffinity label. J Biol Chem, 262(36), 17683-9, 1987

Shanahan, M F, Wadzinski, B E, Lowndes, J M, Ruoho, A E. Photoaffinity labeling of the human erythrocyte monosaccharide transporter with an aryl azide derivative of D-glucose. J Biol Chem, 260(20), 10897-900, 1985


Postdoctoral Position Available
No

Postdoctoral Position Details
N/A

Updated Date
04/22/2012