Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Peek, Richard M. Jr., M.D.
Director, Division of Gastroenterology
Professor of Medicine
Mina Cobb Wallace Chair in Immunology
Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
Professor of Cancer Biology

Lab Url:

Phone Number: (615) 343-1596


Peek, Richard's picture

Office Address   Mailing Address

1025C MRB IV

1030C MRB IV (0252) 37232-0252

Research Keywords
Helicobacter pylori, virulence factors, apoptosis, gastric cancer, inflammation, cag island, signal transduction, pathogenesis,Apoptosis,Bacteria,Cancer,Infectious disease,Malignancy,Microbiology,Molecular medicine

Research Specialty
Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer

Research Description
The gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic interactive barrier that normally segregates microbial populations from their cognate human hosts. An aberrant consequence of contact between microbes and gut epithelial cells is the development of mucosal inflammation, which, if allowed to become persistent, can initiate carcinogenic pathways. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species that persistently colonizes the human stomach and induces chronic gastritis, is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. However, only a fraction of infected persons ever develop cancer, underscoring the importance of defining mechanisms that regulate the biological interactions of H. pylori with their hosts that promote neoplastic transformation. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells is critical for induction of inflammation and injury; therefore, the overarching theme for our research has been delineation of the molecular signaling events initiated by bacterial:epithelial cell contact that regulate phenotypes related to carcinogenesis.

The most important known H. pylori strain-specific determinant associated with cancer is the cag pathogenicity island, and cag+ strains augment the risk for severe gastritis and gastric cancer. Using in vitro models of bacterial:gastric epithelial cell interactions, we have shown that cag island genes are required for pro-inflammatory cytokine release and induction of apoptosis, and that these events are mediated by activation of NF-kB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Recently, we have used global proteomics approaches to identify additional H. pylori products that are related to pathogenesis within the gastric niche. Extending these results into rodent models of H. pylori-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis (Mongolian gerbils and mice), we have shown that inactivation of such genes attenuates the development gastric injury and cancer.

In human gastric tissue, however, gastric epithelial cell proliferation is significantly higher but apoptotic indices are lower among persons colonized with cag+ compared to cag- strains or uninfected persons leading us to postulate that reduced rates of cell loss, when accompanied by hyperproliferation, may heighten retention of mutagenized cells, which could predispose towards cancer. Therefore, we have also focused our investigations on host determinants that influence disease outcomes occurring within the context of H. pylori infection. One host effector that may influence carcinogenesis in response to H. pylori is MMP-7, a matrix metalloproteinase that enhances tumor formation in rodents, and is over-expressed in premalignant and malignant lesions within H. pylori-infected human mucosa. Although epithelial cells acutely exposed to matrilysin rapidly undergo apoptosis, constitutive expression of MMP-7 selects for cells with a reduced sensitivity to apoptosis. Our experiments have recently shown that MMP-7 is detected exclusively in human mucosa colonized by cag+ strains, and these same H. pylori strains selectively induce MMP-7 in vitro through cag-mediated activation of NF-kB and MAPK. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that strain-selective activation of NF-kB and/or MAPK by H. pylori cag+ strains regulates MMP-7 expression, which may contribute to the augmentation in carcinogenic risk associated with these strains by attenuating apoptosis within chronically colonized mucosa.

We have also recently shown that carcinogenic strains of H. pylori can selectively activate B-catenin, and this is due to translocation of CagA into the host epithelial cell. Our current studies therefore, are not only allowing us to investigate discrete interactions that lead to H. pylori-induced neoplasias but also are providing mechanistic insights into other malignancies that arise within the context of microbially initiated inflammatory states.

Arboleda, RN, Schneider, BG, Bravo, LE, Romero-Gallo, J, Peek, RM, Mera, RM, Yepez, MC, Campo, C, Correa, P. Use of the Noninvasive Entero-test in the Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Children in an Endemic Area in Colombia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 57(2), 192-6, 2013.

Barrett, CW, Ning, W, Chen, X, Smith, JJ, Washington, MK, Hill, KE, Coburn, LA, Peek, RM, Chaturvedi, R, Wilson, KT, Burk, RF, Williams, CS. Tumor suppressor function of the plasma glutathione peroxidase gpx3 in colitis-associated carcinoma. Cancer Res, 73(3), 1245-55, 2013.

Gaddy, JA, Radin, JN, Loh, JT, Zhang, F, Washington, MK, Peek, RM, Algood, HM, Cover, TL. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. Infect Immun, 81(6), 2258-67, 2013.

Gobert, AP, Verriere, T, de Sablet, T, Peek, RM, Chaturvedi, R, Wilson, KT. Haem oxygenase-1 inhibits phosphorylation of the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA in gastric epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol, 15(1), 145-56, 2013.

Noto, JM, Gaddy, JA, Lee, JY, Piazuelo, MB, Friedman, DB, Colvin, DC, Romero-Gallo, J, Suarez, G, Loh, J, Slaughter, JC, Tan, S, Morgan, DR, Wilson, KT, Bravo, LE, Correa, P, Cover, TL, Amieva, MR, Peek, RM. Iron deficiency accelerates Helicobacter pylori-induced carcinogenesis in rodents and humans. J Clin Invest, 123(1), 479-92, 2013.

Noto, JM, Khizanishvili, T, Chaturvedi, R, Piazuelo, MB, Romero-Gallo, J, Delgado, AG, Khurana, SS, Sierra, JC, Krishna, US, Suarez, G, Powell, AE, Goldenring, JR, Coffey, RJ, Yang, VW, Correa, P, Mills, JC, Wilson, KT, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori promotes the expression of Kr??ppel-like factor 5, a mediator of carcinogenesis, in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One, 8(1), e54344, 2013.

Schneider, BG, Peek, RM. Gastric cancer prevention by demethylation. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 6(4), 253-6, 2013.

Wroblewski, LE, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis: mechanisms. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 42(2), 285-98, 2013.

Chaturvedi, R, de Sablet, T, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT. Spermine oxidase, a polyamine catabolic enzyme that links Helicobacter pylori CagA and gastric cancer risk. Gut Microbes, 3(1), 48-56, 2012.

Epplein, M, Zheng, W, Xiang, YB, Peek, RM, Li, H, Correa, P, Gao, J, Michel, A, Pawlita, M, Cai, Q, Shu, XO. Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori biomarkers for gastric cancer risk among Chinese men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 21(12), 2185-92, 2012.

Loh, JT, Friedman, DB, Piazuelo, MB, Bravo, LE, Wilson, KT, Peek, RM, Correa, P, Cover, TL. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori cagA promoter elements required for salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression. Infect Immun, , , 2012.

Noto, JM, Peek, RM. Gastric-to-intestinal transdifferentiation and cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(50), 20173-4, 2012.

Noto, JM, Peek, RM. The Helicobacter pylori cag Pathogenicity Island. Methods Mol Biol, 921, 41-50, 2012.

Noto, JM, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori: an overview. Methods Mol Biol, 921, 7-10, 2012.

Noto, JM, Peek, RM. Genetic manipulation of a naturally competent bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Methods Mol Biol, 921, 51-9, 2012.

Peek, RM, Kuipers, EJ. Gained in translation: the importance of biologically relevant models of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer. Gut, 61(1), 2-3, 2012. PMCID:3368554

Raju, D, Hussey, S, Ang, M, Terebiznik, MR, Sibony, M, Galindo-Mata, E, Gupta, V, Blanke, SR, Delgado, A, Romero-Gallo, J, Ramjeet, MS, Mascarenhas, H, Peek, RM, Correa, P, Streutker, C, Hold, G, Kunstmann, E, Yoshimori, T, Silverberg, MS, Girardin, SE, Philpott, DJ, El Omar, E, Jones, NL. Vacuolating cytotoxin and variants in Atg16L1 that disrupt autophagy promote Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. Gastroenterology, 142(5), 1160-71, 2012.

Sicinschi, LA, Correa, P, Bravo, LE, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT, Loh, JT, Yepez, MC, Gold, BD, Thompson, DT, Cover, TL, Schneider, BG. Non-invasive genotyping of Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, and hopQ from asymptomatic children. Helicobacter, 17(2), 96-106, 2012.

Sitaraman, R, Israel, DA, Romero-Gallo, J, Peek, RM. Cell-associated hemolysis induced by Helicobacter pylori is mediated by phospholipases with mitogen-activated protein kinase-activating properties. J Clin Microbiol, 50(3), 1014-8, 2012.

Takeuchi, H, Zhang, YN, Israel, DA, Peek, RM, Kamioka, M, Yanai, H, Morimoto, N, Sugiura, T. Effect of Helicobacter pylori cdrA on interleukin-8 secretions and nuclear factor kappa B activation. World J Gastroenterol, 18(5), 425-34, 2012. PMCID:3270507

Wei, J, Noto, J, Zaika, E, Romero-Gallo, J, Correa, P, El-Rifai, W, Peek, RM, Zaika, A. Pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori alters the expression profile of p53 protein isoforms and p53 response to cellular stresses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(38), E2543-50, 2012.

Williams, CS, Bradley, AM, Chaturvedi, R, Singh, K, Piazuelo, MB, Chen, X, McDonough, EM, Schwartz, DA, Brown, CT, Allaman, MM, Coburn, LA, Horst, SN, Beaulieu, DB, Choksi, YA, Washington, MK, Williams, AD, Fisher, MA, Zinkel, SS, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT, Hiebert, SW. MTG16 contributes to colonic epithelial integrity in experimental colitis. Gut, , , 2012.

Wroblewski, LE, Peek, RM. When guests simply will not leave. Cell Host Microbe, 12(6), 733-4, 2012.

Yan, F, Wang, L, Shi, Y, Cao, H, Liu, L, Washington, MK, Chaturvedi, R, Israel, DA, Cao, H, Wang, B, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT, Polk, DB. Berberine promotes recovery of colitis and inhibits inflammatory responses in colonic macrophages and epithelial cells in DSS-treated mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 302(5), G504-14, 2012.

Chaturvedi, R, Asim, M, Romero-Gallo, J, Barry, DP, Hoge, S, de Sablet, T, Delgado, AG, Wroblewski, LE, Piazuelo, MB, Yan, F, Israel, DA, Casero, RA, Correa, P, Gobert, AP, Polk, DB, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT. Spermine oxidase mediates the gastric cancer risk associated with Helicobacter pylori CagA. Gastroenterology, 141(5), 1696-708.e1-2, 2011. PMCID:3368554

Epplein, M, Signorello, LB, Zheng, W, Peek, RM, Michel, A, Williams, SM, Pawlita, M, Correa, P, Cai, Q, Blot, WJ. Race, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori infection in a low-income United States population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20(5), 826-34, 2011. PMCID:3089670

Gobert, AP, Asim, M, Piazuelo, MB, Verriere, T, Scull, BP, de Sablet, T, Glumac, A, Lewis, ND, Correa, P, Peek, RM, Chaturvedi, R, Wilson, KT. Disruption of nitric oxide signaling by Helicobacter pylori results in enhanced inflammation by inhibition of heme oxygenase-1. J Immunol, 187(10), 5370-9, 2011. PMCID:3368554

Hilliard, VC, Frey, MR, Dempsey, PJ, Peek, RM, Polk, DB. TNF-alpha converting enzyme-mediated ErbB4 transactivation by TNF promotes colonic epithelial cell survival. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 301(2), G338-46, 2011. PMCID:3174469

Nagy, TA, Allen, SS, Wroblewski, LE, Flaherty, DK, Slaughter, JC, Perez-Perez, G, Israel, DA, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori induction of eosinophil migration is mediated by the cag pathogenicity island via microbial-epithelial interactions. Am J Pathol, 178(4), 1448-52, 2011. PMCID:3078468

Nagy, TA, Wroblewski, LE, Wang, D, Piazuelo, MB, Delgado, A, Romero-Gallo, J, Noto, J, Israel, DA, Ogden, SR, Correa, P, Cover, TL, Peek, RM. I?-Catenin and p120 mediate PPARI'-dependent proliferation induced by Helicobacter pylori in human and rodent epithelia. Gastroenterology, 141(2), 553-64, 2011. PMCID:3368554

Soutto, M, Belkhiri, A, Piazuelo, MB, Schneider, BG, Peng, D, Jiang, A, Washington, MK, Kokoye, Y, Crowe, SE, Zaika, A, Correa, P, Peek, RM, El-Rifai, W. Loss of TFF1 is associated with activation of NF-I?B-mediated inflammation and gastric neoplasia in mice and humans. J Clin Invest, 121(5), 1753-67, 2011. PMCID:3083788

Tan, S, Noto, JM, Romero-Gallo, J, Peek, RM, Amieva, MR. Helicobacter pylori perturbs iron trafficking in the epithelium to grow on the cell surface. PLoS Pathog, 7(5), e1002050, 2011. PMCID:3093365

Wroblewski, LE, Peek, RM. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori". Cell Commun Signal, 9(1), 29, 2011. PMCID:3225297

Yachimski, P, Peek, RM. Biomarkers in exploring the frontiers of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of Barrett''s esophagus. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 4(6), 783-6, 2011. PMCID:3174469

Yan, F, Cao, H, Cover, TL, Washington, MK, Shi, Y, Liu, L, Chaturvedi, R, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT, Polk, DB. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest, 121(6), 2242-53, 2011. PMCID:3104743

de Sablet, T, Piazuelo, MB, Shaffer, CL, Schneider, BG, Asim, M, Chaturvedi, R, Bravo, LE, Sicinschi, LA, Delgado, AG, Mera, RM, Israel, DA, Romero-Gallo, J, Peek, RM, Cover, TL, Correa, P, Wilson, KT. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori is a determinant of gastric cancer risk. Gut, 60(9), 1189-95, 2011. PMCID:3133872

Miles, S, Piazuelo, MB, Semino-Mora, C, Washington, MK, Dubois, A, Peek, RM, Correa, P, Merrell, DS. Detailed in vivo analysis of the role of Helicobacter pylori Fur in colonization and disease. Infect Immun, 78(7), 3073-82, 2010. PMCID:2897407

Nam, KT, Lee, HJ, Sousa, JF, Weis, VG, O''Neal, RL, Finke, PE, Romero-Gallo, J, Shi, G, Mills, JC, Peek, RM, Konieczny, SF, Goldenring, JR. Mature chief cells are cryptic progenitors for metaplasia in the stomach. Gastroenterology, 139(6), 2028-2037.e9, 2010. PMCID:2997152

Ogden, SR, Noto, JM, Allen, SS, Patel, DA, Romero-Gallo, J, Washington, MK, Fingleton, B, Israel, DA, Lewis, ND, Wilson, KT, Chaturvedi, R, Zhao, Z, Shyr, Y, Peek, RM. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 and premalignant host responses in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice. Cancer Res, 70(1), 30-5, 2010. PMCID:2804939

Peek, RM, Fiske, C, Wilson, KT. Role of innate immunity in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric malignancy. Physiol Rev, 90(3), 831-58, 2010. PMCID:2990353

Saha, A, Hammond, CE, Beeson, C, Peek, RM, Smolka, AJ. Helicobacter pylori represses proton pump expression and inhibits acid secretion in human gastric mucosa. Gut, 59(7), 874-81, 2010. PMCID:2980826

Schneider, BG, Peng, DF, Camargo, MC, Piazuelo, MB, Sicinschi, LA, Mera, R, Romero-Gallo, J, Delgado, AG, Bravo, LE, Wilson, KT, Peek, RM, Correa, P, El-Rifai, W. Promoter DNA hypermethylation in gastric biopsies from subjects at high and low risk for gastric cancer. Int J Cancer, 127(11), 2588-97, 2010. PMCID:2916942

Sicinschi, LA, Correa, P, Peek, RM, Camargo, MC, Piazuelo, MB, Romero-Gallo, J, Hobbs, SS, Krishna, U, Delgado, A, Mera, R, Bravo, LE, Schneider, BG. CagA C-terminal variations in Helicobacter pylori strains from Colombian patients with gastric precancerous lesions. Clin Microbiol Infect, 16(4), 369-78, 2010. PMCID:2837774

Styer, CM, Hansen, LM, Cooke, CL, Gundersen, AM, Choi, SS, Berg, DE, Benghezal, M, Marshall, BJ, Peek, RM, Bor??n, T, Solnick, JV. Expression of the BabA adhesin during experimental infection with Helicobacter pylori. Infect Immun, 78(4), 1593-600, 2010. PMCID:2849406

Tsang, YH, Lamb, A, Romero-Gallo, J, Huang, B, Ito, K, Peek, RM, Ito, Y, Chen, LF. Helicobacter pylori CagA targets gastric tumor suppressor RUNX3 for proteasome-mediated degradation. Oncogene, 29(41), 5643-50, 2010. PMCID:2980823

Wei, J, Nagy, TA, Vilgelm, A, Zaika, E, Ogden, SR, Romero-Gallo, J, Piazuelo, MB, Correa, P, Washington, MK, El-Rifai, W, Peek, RM, Zaika, A. Regulation of p53 tumor suppressor by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology, 139(4), 1333-43, 2010. PMCID:2949494

Wroblewski, LE, Peek, RM, Wilson, KT. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: factors that modulate disease risk. Clin Microbiol Rev, 23(4), 713-39, 2010. PMCID:2952980

Algood, HM, Allen, SS, Washington, MK, Peek, RM, Miller, GG, Cover, TL. Regulation of gastric B cell recruitment is dependent on IL-17 receptor A signaling in a model of chronic bacterial infection. J Immunol, 183(9), 5837-46, 2009. PMCID:2834183

Bronte-Tinkew, DM, Terebiznik, M, Franco, A, Ang, M, Ahn, D, Mimuro, H, Sasakawa, C, Ropeleski, MJ, Peek, RM, Jones, NL. Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res, 69(2), 632-9, 2009.

Franco, AT, Friedman, DB, Nagy, TA, Romero-Gallo, J, Krishna, U, Kendall, A, Israel, DA, Tegtmeyer, N, Washington, MK, Peek, RM. Delineation of a carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori proteome. Mol Cell Proteomics, 8(8), 1947-58, 2009. PMCID:2722763

Lamb, A, Yang, XD, Tsang, YH, Li, JD, Higashi, H, Hatakeyama, M, Peek, RM, Blanke, SR, Chen, LF. Helicobacter pylori CagA activates NF-kappaB by targeting TAK1 for TRAF6-mediated Lys 63 ubiquitination. EMBO Rep, 10(11), 1242-9, 2009. PMCID:2775174

McClain, MS, Shaffer, CL, Israel, DA, Peek, RM, Cover, TL. Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer. BMC Genomics, 10, 3, 2009. PMCID:2627912

Nagy, TA, Frey, MR, Yan, F, Israel, DA, Polk, DB, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori regulates cellular migration and apoptosis by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. J Infect Dis, 199(5), 641-51, 2009. PMCID:2830010

Nam, KT, Lee, HJ, Mok, H, Romero-Gallo, J, Crowe, JE, Peek, RM, Goldenring, JR. Amphiregulin-deficient mice develop spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia. Gastroenterology, 136(4), 1288-96, 2009. PMCID:2844775

Schneider, N, Krishna, U, Romero-Gallo, J, Israel, DA, Piazuelo, MB, Camargo, MC, Sicinschi, LA, Schneider, BG, Correa, P, Peek, RM. Role of Helicobacter pylori CagA molecular variations in induction of host phenotypes with carcinogenic potential. J Infect Dis, 199(8), 1218-21, 2009. PMCID:2828761

Wroblewski, LE, Shen, L, Ogden, S, Romero-Gallo, J, Lapierre, LA, Israel, DA, Turner, JR, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori dysregulation of gastric epithelial tight junctions by urease-mediated myosin II activation. Gastroenterology, 136(1), 236-46, 2009. PMCID:2678540

Yan, F, Cao, H, Chaturvedi, R, Krishna, U, Hobbs, SS, Dempsey, PJ, Peek, RM, Cover, TL, Washington, MK, Wilson, KT, Polk, DB. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis. Gastroenterology, 136(4), 1297-1307, e1-3, 2009. PMCID:2878739

Yang, L, Lu, X, Nossa, CW, Francois, F, Peek, RM, Pei, Z. Inflammation and intestinal metaplasia of the distal esophagus are associated with alterations in the microbiome. Gastroenterology, 137(2), 588-97, 2009. PMCID:2963147

Ding, SZ, Olekhnovich, IN, Cover, TL, Peek, RM, Smith, MF, Goldberg, JB. Helicobacter pylori and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate activator protein-1 (AP-1) subcomponent protein expression and DNA-binding activity in gastric epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 53(3), 385-94, 2008. PMCID:2553690

Franco, AT, Johnston, E, Krishna, U, Yamaoka, Y, Israel, DA, Nagy, TA, Wroblewski, LE, Piazuelo, MB, Correa, P, Peek, RM. Regulation of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. Cancer Res, 68(2), 379-87, 2008.

Goodwin, AC, Weinberger, DM, Ford, CB, Nelson, JC, Snider, JD, Hall, JD, Paules, CI, Peek, RM, Forsyth, MH. Expression of the Helicobacter pylori adhesin SabA is controlled via phase variation and the ArsRS signal transduction system. Microbiology, 154(Pt 8), 2231-40, 2008. PMCID:2715451

Keates, AC, Tummala, S, Peek, RM, Csizmadia, E, Kunzli, B, Becker, K, Correa, P, Romero-Gallo, J, Piazuelo, MB, Sheth, S, Kelly, CP, Robson, SC, Keates, S. Helicobacter pylori infection stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by gastric epithelial cells. Infect Immun, , , 2008. PMCID:2519438

O''Brien, DP, Romero-Gallo, J, Schneider, BG, Chaturvedi, R, Delgado, A, Harris, EJ, Krishna, U, Ogden, SR, Israel, DA, Wilson, KT, Peek, RM. Regulation of the Helicobacter pylori cellular receptor decay-accelerating factor. J Biol Chem, 283(35), 23922-30, 2008. PMCID:2527108

Piazuelo, MB, Camargo, MC, Mera, RM, Delgado, AG, Peek, RM, Correa, H, Schneider, BG, Sicinschi, LA, Mora, Y, Bravo, LE, Correa, P. Eosinophils and mast cells in chronic gastritis: possible implications in carcinogenesis. Hum Pathol, , , 2008. PMCID:2561958

Romero-Gallo, J, Harris, EJ, Krishna, U, Washington, MK, Perez-Perez, GI, Peek, RM. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric carcinogenesis. Lab Invest, 88(3), 328-36, 2008.

Shimada, M, Ando, T, Peek, RM, Watanabe, O, Ishiguro, K, Maeda, O, Ishikawa, D, Hasegawa, M, Ina, K, Ohmiya, N, Niwa, Y, Goto, H. Helicobacter pylori infection upregulates interleukin-18 production from gastric epithelial cells. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 20(12), 1144-50, 2008. PMCID:3372857

Sicinschi, LA, Correa, P, Peek, RM, Camargo, MC, Delgado, A, Piazuelo, MB, Romero-Gallo, J, Bravo, LE, Schneider, BG. Helicobacter pylori genotyping and sequencing using paraffin-embedded biopsies from residents of colombian areas with contrasting gastric cancer risks. Helicobacter, 13(2), 135-45, 2008.

Wei, J, O''Brien, D, Vilgelm, A, Piazuelo, MB, Correa, P, Washington, MK, El-Rifai, W, Peek, RM, Zaika, A. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with gastric epithelial cells is mediated by the p53 protein family. Gastroenterology, 134(5), 1412-23, 2008. PMCID:2430883

Algood, HM, Gallo-Romero, J, Wilson, KT, Peek, RM, Cover, TL. Host response to Helicobacter pylori infection before initiation of the adaptive immune response. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 51(3), 577-86, 2007.

Corcoran, PA, Atherton, JC, Kerrigan, SW, Wadstrom, T, Murray, FE, Peek, RM, Fitzgerald, DJ, Cox, DM, Byrne, MF. The effect of different strains of Helicobacter pylori on platelet aggregation. Can J Gastroenterol, 21(6), 367-70, 2007. PMCID:2658119

Ghose, C, Perez-Perez, GI, Torres, VJ, Crosatti, M, Nomura, A, Peek, RM, Cover, TL, Francois, F, Blaser, MJ. Serological assays to identify human gastric colonization by VacA m1 or m2 Helicobacter pylori strains. Clin Vaccine Immunol, , , 2007. PMCID:1865612

Keates, S, Keates, AC, Katchar, K, Peek, RM, Kelly, CP. Helicobacter pylori induces up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in AGS gastric epithelial cells. J Infect Dis, 196(1), 95-103, 2007.

Murata-Kamiya, N, Kurashima, Y, Teishikata, Y, Yamahashi, Y, Saito, Y, Higashi, H, Aburatani, H, Akiyama, T, Peek, RM, Azuma, T, Hatakeyama, M. Helicobacter pylori CagA interacts with E-cadherin and deregulates the beta-catenin signal that promotes intestinal transdifferentiation in gastric epithelial cells. Oncogene, 26(32), 4617-26, 2007.

Steele, IA, Dimaline, R, Pritchard, DM, Peek, RM, Wang, TC, Dockray, GJ, Varro, A. Helicobacter and gastrin stimulate Reg1 expression in gastric epithelial cells through distinct promoter elements. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 293(1), G347-54, 2007.

Wroblewski, LE, Peek, RM. Orchestration of dysregulated epithelial turnover by a manipulative pathogen. Cell Host Microbe, 2(4), 209-11, 2007.

Camargo, MC, Mera, R, Correa, P, Peek, RM, Fontham, ET, Goodman, KJ, Piazuelo, MB, Sicinschi, L, Zabaleta, J, Schneider, BG. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15(9), 1674-87, 2006.

Israel, DA, Peek, RM. The role of persistence in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 22(1), 3-7, 2006.

O''Brien, DP, Israel, DA, Krishna, U, Romero-Gallo, J, Nedrud, J, Medof, ME, Lin, F, Redline, R, Lublin, DM, Nowicki, BJ, Franco, AT, Ogden, S, Williams, AD, Polk, DB, Peek, RM. The role of decay-accelerating factor as a receptor for Helicobacter pylori and a mediator of gastric inflammation. J Biol Chem, 281(19), 13317-23, 2006.

Peek, RM, Crabtree, JE. Helicobacter infection and gastric neoplasia. J Pathol, 208(2), 233-48, 2006.

Peek, RM, Schneider, BG, Correa, P. Coming unglued. Clin Cancer Res, 12(10), 2951-4, 2006.

Backert, S, Kwok, T, Schmid, M, Selbach, M, Moese, S, Peek, RM, K??nig, W, Meyer, TF, Jungblut, PR. Subproteomes of soluble and structure-bound Helicobacter pylori proteins analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteomics, 5(5), 1331-45, 2005.

Bhat, N, Gaensbauer, J, Peek, RM, Bloch, K, Tham, KT, Blaser, MJ, Perez-Perez, G. Local and systemic immune and inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori strains. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 12(12), 1393-400, 2005. PMCID:1317075

Franco, AT, Israel, DA, Washington, MK, Krishna, U, Fox, JG, Rogers, AB, Neish, AS, Collier-Hyams, L, Perez-Perez, GI, Hatakeyama, M, Whitehead, R, Gaus, K, Obrien, DP, Romero-Gallo, J, Peek, RM. Activation of {beta}-catenin by carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102(30); Epub Jul 18(7/26/05), 10646-51, 2005. PMCID:1180811

Keates S, Keates A, Nath S, Peek RM, & Kelly CP. Transactivation of the EGFR by cag+ Helicobacter pylori induces up-regulation of the early growth response gene Egr-1 in gastric epithelial cells.. Gut, 54, 1363-1369, 2005.

Mizuno, T, Ando, T, Nobata, K, Tsuzuki, T, Maeda, O, Watanabe, O, Minami, M, Ina, K, Kusugami, K, Peek, RM, Goto, H. Interleukin-17 levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa and pathologic sequelae of colonization. World J Gastroenterol, 11(40), 6305-11, 2005.

Nomura, S, Settle, SH, Leys, CM, Means, AL, Peek, RM, Leach, SD, Wright, CV, Coffey, RJ, Goldenring, JR. Evidence for repatterning of the gastric fundic epithelium associated with M??n??trier's disease and TGFalpha overexpression. Gastroenterology, 128(5), 1292-305, 2005.

Peek RM.. Orchestration of aberrant epithelial signaling by Helicobacter pylori CagA. . Science STKE, 277, 1-3, 2005.

Peek, RM. Events at the host-microbial interface of the gastrointestinal tract IV. The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori persistence. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 289(1), G8-12, 2005.

Peek, RM. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol, , , 2005.

Peek, RM, Mohla, S, DuBois, RN. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of cancer: summary and recommendations from a national cancer institute-sponsored meeting. Cancer Res, 65(19), 8583-6, 2005.

Pei, Z, Yang, L, Peek, RM, Jr Levine, SM, Pride, DT, Blaser, MJ. Bacterial biota in reflux esophagitis and Barrett''s esophagus. World J Gastroenterol, 11(46), 7277-83, 2005.

Popescu, A, Karpay, A, Israel, DA, Peek, RM, Krezel, AM. Helicobacter pylori protein HP0222 belongs to Arc/MetJ family of transcriptional regulators. Proteins, 59(2), 303-11, 2005.

Terry, CE, McGinnis, LM, Madigan, KC, Cao, P, Cover, TL, Liechti, GW, Peek, RM, Forsyth, MH. Genomic Comparison of cag pathogenicity island (PAI)-positive and -negative Helicobacter pylori strains: identification of novel markers for cag PAI-positive strains. Infect Immun, 73(6), 3794-8, 2005. PMCID:1111835

Duck WM, Sobel J, Pruckler JM, Song Q, Swerdlow D, Friedman C, Sulka A, Swaminathan B, Taylor T, Hoestra M, Griffin P, Smoot D, Peek RM, Metz DC, Bloom PB, Goldschmidt S, Dunne D, Parsonnet J, Triadafilopoulos G, Perez-Perez GI, Cutler A, Vakil N, Ernst P, Czinn S, and Gold BD. Antimicrobial resistance rates and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori infection in a prospective multi-center study in the United States.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10, 1088-1094, 2004.

Gewirtz, AT, Yu, Y, Krishna, US, Israel, DA, Lyons, SL, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori flagellin evades toll-like receptor 5-mediated innate immunity. J Infect Dis, 189(10), 1914-20, 2004.

McNulty, SL, Mole, BM, Dailidiene, D, Segal, I, Ally, R, Mistry, R, Secka, O, Adegbola, RA, Thomas, JE, Lenarcic, EM, Peek, RM, Berg, DE, Forsyth, MH. Novel 180- and 480-base-pair insertions in African and African-American strains of Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Microbiol, 42(12), 5658-63, 2004. PMCID:535299

Peek RM.. Molecular hijacking and intracellular chaos. . Gastroenterology, 126, 613-614, 2004.

Peek RM.. Intestinal malignancy and Campylobacter jejuni. . Gastroenterology, 127, 1266-1267, 2004.

Peek, RM. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori as a means towards eliminating gastric adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology, 127(1), 344-6, 2004.

Peek, RM. The past determines the future. Gastroenterology, 126(4), 1202-4, 2004.

Peek, RM. Intestinal malignancy and campylobacter jejuni. Gastroenterology, 127(4), 1266-7; discussion 1267-8, 2004.

Peek, RM. Clandestine intracellular delivery of Helicobacter pylori CagA: guess who''s coming to dinner. Gastroenterology, 127(2), 669-72, 2004.

Peek, RM. Prevention of colorectal cancer through the use of COX-2 selective inhibitors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 54 Suppl 1, S50-6, 2004.

Peek, RM. Preventing colitis through alteration of the intestinal biota. Gastroenterology, 126(1), 353-5; discussion 355, 2004.

Peek, RM. Molecular hijacking and intracellular chaos. Gastroenterology, 126(2), 613-4; discussion 614-5, 2004.

Peek, Richard. Helicobacter pylori and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol, 7(1), 59-70, 2004.

Aras RA, Lee Y-C, Peek RM, and Blaser MJ. Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing Helicobacter pylori. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 188(), 486-496, 2003.

Cover, Timothy L, Krishna, Uma S, Israel, Dawn A, Peek, Richard M. Induction of gastric epithelial cell apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Cancer Res, 63(5), 951-7, 2003.

Crawford, HC, Krishna, US, Israel, DA, Matrisian, LM, Washington, MK, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori strain-selective induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in vitro and within gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology, 125(4), 1125-36, 2003.

El-Omar E and Peek RM. Rapid Reference to Dyspepsia. Harcourt Publishers, London, U.K., , , 2003.

Fox, JG, Wang, TC, Rogers, AB, Poutahidis, T, Ge, Z, Taylor, N, Dangler, CA, Israel, DA, Krishna, U, Gaus, K, Peek, RM. Host and microbial constituents influence Helicobacter pylori-induced cancer in a murine model of hypergastrinemia. Gastroenterology, 124(7), 1879-90, 2003.

Israel DA and Peek RM.. Application of microarray analysis to the investigation of host-pathogen interactions.. In: Hecht GA, editor. Microbial pathogenesis and the intestinal epithelial cell. ASM press, Washington D.C. , , 121-140, 2003.

Lamarque D and Peek RM.. Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.. Helicobacter, 8, 21-30, 2003.

Peek RM.. The politics of H. pylori-challenged mice: liberal permissiveness versus conservative restriction.. Gastroenterology, 124, 577-578, 2003.

Peek RM.. The superiority of proton pump inhibitor-based regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Evidence-Based . Gastroenterology, 4, 46-47, 2003.

Peek, RM. Intoxicated cells and stomach ulcers. Nat Genet, 33(3), 328-30, 2003.

Peek, RM. Suppression of pathogenesis: bacteria lead the way. Gastroenterology, 124(5), 1550-2; discussion 1552, 2003.

Peek, RM. The role of PPARgamma in colon cancer: is it as simple as APC. Gastroenterology, 125(2), 619-21, 2003.

Ando T, Peek RM, Lee Y-C, Krishna U, Kusugami K, and Blaser MJ. . Host cell responses to genotypically similar Helicobacter pylori isolates from the United States and Japan. . Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol., 9, 167-175, 2002.

Ando T, Peek RM, Pride D, Levine S, Takata T, Kusugami K, van der Ende A, Kuipers EJ, Kusters JG, and Blaser MJ. . Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori HP0638 reflect strain geographic origin and correlate with cagA status. . J. Clin. Microbiol., , 40, 239-246, 2002.

Ando, T, Peek, RM, Lee, YC, Krishna, U, Kusugami, K, Blaser, MJ. Host cell responses to genotypically similar Helicobacter pylori isolates from United States and Japan. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 9(1), 167-75, 2002. PMCID:119904

Ando, T, Wassenaar, TM, Peek, RM, Aras, RA, Tschumi, AI, van Doorn, LJ, Kusugami, K, Blaser, MJ. A Helicobacter pylori restriction endonuclease-replacing gene, hrgA, is associated with gastric cancer in Asian strains. Cancer Res, 62(8), 2385-9, 2002.

Goldblum, JR, Richter, JE, Vaezi, M, Falk, GW, Rice, TW, Peek, RM. Helicobacter pylori infection, not gastroesophageal reflux, is the major cause of inflammation and intestinal metaplasia of gastric cardiac mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol, 97(2), 302-11, 2002.

Grady, WM, Peek, RM. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: more answers or more questions. Gastroenterology, 122(3), 830-1; discussion 831-2, 2002.

Graham, James E, Peek, Richard M, Krishna, Uma, Cover, Timothy L. Global analysis of Helicobacter pylori gene expression in human gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology, 123(5), 1637-48, 2002. PMCID:1361305

Nozawa, Y, Nishihara, K, Peek, RM, Nakano, M, Uji, T, Ajioka, H, Matsuura, N, Miyake, H. Identification of a signaling cascade for interleukin-8 production by Helicobacter pylori in human gastric epithelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol, 64(1), 21-30, 2002.

Peek RM. . New insights into microbially-initiated gastric malignancies: beyond the usual suspects. . Gastroenterology, 123, 1739-1740, 2002.

Peek RM. . Is CagA ready for prime time? Evidence-Based . Gastroenterology, 3, 78-79, 2002.

Peek, RM. Persistence and pathogenesis: a great defense facilitates a good offense. Gastroenterology, 122(7), 2084-5, 2002.

Peek, RM. New insights into microbially initiated gastric malignancies: beyond the usual suspects. Gastroenterology, 123(5), 1739-40; discussion 1740-1, 2002.

Peek, RM. Elimination of Helicobacter pylori or acid in high-risk users of aspirin or nonsteroidal medications: final answer. Gastroenterology, 122(1), 238-40, 2002.

Peek, Richard M. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific modulation of gastric mucosal cellular turnover: implications for carcinogenesis. J Gastroenterol, 37 Suppl 13, 10-6, 2002.

Peek, Richard M, Blaser, Martin J. Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas. Nat Rev Cancer, 2(1), 28-37, 2002.

Takeuchi, Hiroaki, Israel, Dawn A, Miller, Geraldine G, Donahue, John P, Krishna, Uma, Gaus, Kristin, Peek, Richard M. Characterization of expression of a functionally conserved Helicobacter pylori methyltransferase-encoding gene within inflamed mucosa and during in vitro growth. J Infect Dis, 186(8), 1186-9, 2002.

Donahue JP, and Peek RM. . Restriction and modification systems. . In: Hazell S, Mendz G, Mobley H, editors. Helicobacter pylori. ASM press, Washington D.C., , , 269-276, 2001.

Gupta, R A, Polk, D B, Krishna, U, Israel, D A, Yan, F, DuBois, R N, Peek, R M. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma suppresses nuclear factor kappa B-mediated apoptosis induced by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells. J Biol Chem, 276(33), 31059-66, 2001.

Israel, D A, Peek, R M. pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 15(9), 1271-90, 2001.

Israel, D A, Salama, N, Arnold, C N, Moss, S F, Ando, T, Wirth, H P, Tham, K T, Camorlinga, M, Blaser, M J, Falkow, S, Peek, R M. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific differences in genetic content, identified by microarray, influence host inflammatory responses. J Clin Invest, 107(5), 611-20, 2001. PMCID:199426

Israel, D A, Salama, N, Krishna, U, Rieger, U M, Atherton, J C, Falkow, S, Peek, R M. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity within the gastric niche of a single human host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98(25), 14625-30, 2001. PMCID:64732

Iwase H, Maeda O, Shimada M, Tsuzuki T, Peek RM, Nishio Y, Ando T, Ina K, and Kusugami K. . Endoscopic ablation with cyanoacrylate glue for isolated gastric variceal bleeding. . Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 53, 585-592, 2001.

Keates S, Sougioultzis S, Keates AC, Zhao D, Peek RM, Shaw LM, and Kelly CP.. Cag+ Helicobacter pylori induce transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in AGS gastric epithelial cells.. J. Biol. Chem., 276, 48127-48134, 2001.

Kidd M, Peek RM, Lastovica AJ, Israel DA, Kummer AF, and Louw JA. . Analysis of iceA genotypes in South African Helicobacter pylori strains and relationship to clinically significant disease. . Gut, 49, 629-635, 2001.

Peek RM.. Helicobacter pylori, aspirin, and nonsteroidal medications, and complications of ulcer disease: seeing through the glass less dimly? Evidence-Based . Gastroenterology, 2, 58-60, 2001.

Peek RM.. Molecular dissection of the mechanisms through which Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli induce diarrhea.. Gastroenterology, 121, 496-497, 2001.

Peek, R M. IV. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific activation of signal transduction cascades related to gastric inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 280(4), G525-30, 2001.

Peek, R M. The biological impact of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Semin Gastrointest Dis, 12(3), 151-66, 2001.

Tham, K T, Peek, R M, Atherton, J C, Cover, T L, Perez-Perez, G I, Shyr, Y, Blaser, M J. Helicobacter pylori genotypes, host factors, and gastric mucosal histopathology in peptic ulcer disease. Hum Pathol, 32(3), 264-73, 2001.

Donahue, J P, Israel, D A, Peek, R M, Blaser, M J, Miller, G G. Overcoming the restriction barrier to plasmid transformation of Helicobacter pylori. Mol Microbiol, 37(5), 1066-74, 2000.

Donahue, J P, Peek, R M, Van Doorn, L J, Thompson, S A, Xu, Q, Blaser, M J, Miller, G G. Analysis of iceA1 transcription in Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter, 5(1), 1-12, 2000.

Figueiredo C, Quint WGV, Sanna R, Sablon E, Donahue JP, Xu Q, Miller GG, Peek RM, Blaser MJ, and van Doorn LJ. Genetic organization and heterogeneity of the iceA locus of Helicobacter pylori.. Gene, 24, 59-68, 2000.

Iwase H, Kusugami K, Suzuki M, Nishio Y, Ando T, Ina K, and Peek RM.. Endoscopic resection of early-stage esophageal cancer accompanied by esophageal varices.. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 51, 749-752, 2000.

Peek, R M, Wirth, H P, Moss, S F, Yang, M, Abdalla, A M, Tham, K T, Zhang, T, Tang, L H, Modlin, I M, Blaser, M J. Helicobacter pylori alters gastric epithelial cell cycle events and gastrin secretion in Mongolian gerbils. Gastroenterology, 118(1), 48-59, 2000.

Peek, R M, van Doorn, L J, Donahue, J P, Tham, K T, Figueiredo, C, Blaser, M J, Miller, G G. Quantitative detection of Helicobacter pylori gene expression in vivo and relationship to gastric pathology. Infect Immun, 68(10), 5488-95, 2000. PMCID:101496

Vaezi MF, Falk GW, Peek RM, Vicari JJ, Goldblum JR, Perez-Perez GI, Rice TW, Blaser MJ, and Richter JE. . CagA positive strains of Helicobacter pylori may protect against Barrett's esophagus.. Am. J. Gastro., , 95, 2206-2211, 2000.

Atherton JC, Sharp PM, Cover TL, Gonzales-Valencia G, Peek RM, Thompson SA, Hawkey CJ, and Blaser MJ.. Vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles of Helicobacter pylori comprise two geographically widespread types, ml and m2, and have evolved through limited recombination.. Current Microbiol., 39, 211-218, 1999.

Hayakawa M, Shimokawa K, Kusugami K, Sugihara M, Morooka Y, Fujita T, Nakamura M, Nishio Y, Maeda K, Ando T, and Peek RM.. Clinicopathological features of superficial depressed-type colorectal neoplastic lesions. . Am. J. Gastro, 94, 944-949, 1999.

Keates S, Keates AC, Warny M, Peek RM, Murray PG, and Kelly CP.. Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in AGS gastric epithelial cells by cag+ and cag- Helicobacter pylori. . J. Immunol., 163, 5552-55529, 1999.

Peek, R M, Blaser, M J, Mays, D J, Forsyth, M H, Cover, T L, Song, S Y, Krishna, U, Pietenpol, J A. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific genotypes and modulation of the gastric epithelial cell cycle. Cancer Res, 59(24), 6124-31, 1999.

Peek, R M, Vaezi, M F, Falk, G W, Goldblum, J R, Perez-Perez, G I, Richter, J E, Blaser, M J. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA(+) strains and specific host immune responses on the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in the gastric cardia. Int J Cancer, 82(4), 520-4, 1999.

Perez-Perez, G I, Peek, R M, Atherton, J C, Blaser, M J, Cover, T L. Detection of anti-VacA antibody responses in serum and gastric juice samples using type s1/m1 and s2/m2 Helicobacter pylori VacA antigens. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 6(4), 489-93, 1999. PMCID:95713

Perez-Perez, G I, Peek, R M, Legath, A J, Heine, P R, Graff, L B. The role of CagA status in gastric and extragastric complications of Helicobacter pylori. J Physiol Pharmacol, 50(5), 833-45, 1999.

Wirth, H P, Yang, M, Peek, R M, H????k-Nikanne, J, Fried, M, Blaser, M J. Phenotypic diversity in Lewis expression of Helicobacter pylori isolates from the same host. J Lab Clin Med, 133(5), 488-500, 1999.

Goldblum JR, Vicari JJ, Falk GW, Rice TW, Peek RM, Easley K, and Richter JE.. Inflammation and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia: the role of gastroesophageal reflux and H. pylori infection.. Gastroenterology, 114, 633-639, 1998.

H????k-Nikanne, J, Berg, D E, Peek, R M, Kersulyte, D, Tummuru, M K, Blaser, M J. DNA sequence conservation and diversity in transposable element IS605 of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter, 3(2), 79-85, 1998.

Peek, R M, Thompson, S A, Donahue, J P, Tham, K T, Atherton, J C, Blaser, M J, Miller, G G. Adherence to gastric epithelial cells induces expression of a Helicobacter pylori gene, iceA, that is associated with clinical outcome. Proc Assoc Am Physicians, 110(6), 531-44, 1998.

Vicari JJ, Peek RM, Falk GW, Goldblum JR, Easley KA, Schnell J, Perez-Perez GI, Halter SA, Rice TW, Blaser MJ, and Richter JE.. The seroprevalence of cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains in the spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease. . Gastroenterology, 115, 50-57, 1998.

Atherton JC, Peek RM, Tham KT, Cover TL, and Blaser MJ.. Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori. . Gastroenterology, 112, 92-99, 1997.

Peek RM, and Blaser MJ.. Helicobacter pylori, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. . Mechanisms of Microbial Disease. Williams and Wilkins,, , , 1997.

Peek RM, and Blaser MJ. . Pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. . Am. J. Med., 102, 200-207, 1997.

Peek, R M, Moss, S F, Tham, K T, Perez-Perez, G I, Wang, S, Miller, G G, Atherton, J C, Holt, P R, Blaser, M J. Helicobacter pylori cagA+ strains and dissociation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation from apoptosis. J Natl Cancer Inst, 89(12), 863-8, 1997.

Sharma SA, Miller GG, Peek RM, Perez-Perez GI, and Blaser MJ. . T-cell, antibody, and cytokine responses to homologs of the 60-kilodalton heat shock protein in Helicobacter pylori infection. . Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol., 4, 440-446, 1997.

Wirth, H P, Yang, M, Peek, R M, Tham, K T, Blaser, M J. Helicobacter pylori Lewis expression is related to the host Lewis phenotype. Gastroenterology, 113(4), 1091-8, 1997.

Xu, Q, Peek, R M, Miller, G G, Blaser, M J. The Helicobacter pylori genome is modified at CATG by the product of hpyIM. J Bacteriol, 179(21), 6807-15, 1997. PMCID:179612

Atherton, J C, Tham, K T, Peek, R M, Cover, T L, Blaser, M J. Density of Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo as assessed by quantitative culture and histology. J Infect Dis, 174(3), 552-6, 1996.

Atherton, J C, Cao, P, Peek, R M, Tummuru, M K, Blaser, M J, Cover, T L. Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. J Biol Chem, 270(30), 17771-7, 1995.

Blaser, M J, Perez-Perez, G I, Kleanthous, H, Cover, T L, Peek, R M, Chyou, P H, Stemmermann, G N, Nomura, A. Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res, 55(10), 2111-5, 1995.

Peek RM, Miller GG, and Blaser MJ.. Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for bacterial and host gene expression in human gastric mucosa. In: Lee, A., Megraud, F., editors. Helicobacter pylori: Techniques for Clinical Diagnosis and Basic Research. . W.B. Saunders Ltd., , 163-173, 1995.

Peek, R M, Miller, G G, Tham, K T, Perez-Perez, G I, Cover, T L, Atherton, J C, Dunn, G D, Blaser, M J. Detection of Helicobacter pylori gene expression in human gastric mucosa. J Clin Microbiol, 33(1), 28-32, 1995. PMCID:227873

Peek, R M, Miller, G G, Tham, K T, Perez-Perez, G I, Zhao, X, Atherton, J C, Blaser, M J. Heightened inflammatory response and cytokine expression in vivo to cagA+ Helicobacter pylori strains. Lab Invest, 73(6), 760-70, 1995.

Peek RM, and Truss C.. Diarrhea following a dog bite. Dig. Dis. Sci., 36, 1151-1153, 1991.

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