Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Hong, Charles C. , M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Associate Professor of Pharmacology
Associate Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology

Lab Url:

Phone Number: 615-936-7032


Hong, Charles's picture

Office Address   Mailing Address

Light Hall 1155A, 2215 Garland Ave.

Preston Research Building 383 37232

Research Keywords
Chemical biology, Cardiovascular development, Drug discovery, Zebrafish, Developmental biology, Molecular medicine, Pharmacology, Stem cells, Inherited heart diseases, Regenerative Medicine, Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).,Cancer,Cardiac function,Developmental biology,Genetics,Heart,Human Genetics,Kinase,Pharmacology,Signal transduction,Stem cells

Research Description
Our research can be divided into 2 broad areas. The first area involves chemical biology of vertebrate development, which entails discovery of small molecules that selectively modulate cell signaling pathways involved in embryogenesis. Since developmental pathways represent important untapped therapeutic targets, we have an active medicinal chemistry program to develop our novel small molecules as lead compounds for future therapies. We have thus far discovered potent and highly selective chemical modifiers of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, Hedgehog, and lipid signaling pathways, among others. Several of our compounds are first-in-class molecules with substantial therapeutic potential in rare and common diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Our chemical biology exploration has led to new opportunities for innovative therapeutic programs.

In the second, we are examining the utility of hiPSC to study human congenital heart diseases and inherited cardiomyopathies. Finally, we are developing human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes as a platform for drug testing, including validation of novel cardiac inotropes.

2006 - Discovered the role of ERK/MAP kinase signaling in artery specification.
2008 - Discovered dorsomorphin, the first pharmacological inhibitor of the BMP pathway.
2010 - First large scale in vivo structure activity relationship (SAR) study outside the anti-microbial field.
2008, 2010 - First reported use of pharmacological inhibitors of BMP and Wnt pathways to induce cardiomyogenesis in pluripotent stem cells.
2011 - Contributed to the discovery of the role of BMP signaling in cholesterol homeostasis.
2013 - Identification of a mutation causing familial dilated cardiomyopathy by whole exome sequencing.
2013, 2014, 2015- Contributed to the discovery of the therapeutic potential of a BMP inhibitor for lung, breast and ovarian cancers.
2015 - Discovered phosphodiesterase-4 as a pharmacological target for hedgehog signaling inhibitor.

Clinical Research Description
The Center for Inherited Heart Disease collects clinical and genetic information that may help identify factors that influence cardiovascular disease progression and clinical outcomes in affected families. We also seek to discover new mutations that cause cardiovascular diseases. We maintain a repository of explanted human heart tissue samples as a resource for researchers. Our long-term goal is to help develop optimal "personalized care" for patients with familial cardiovascular diseases.

Clinical Interests
Inherited cardiovascular diseases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, premature cardiac deaths, personalized genetic medicine.

Chun, YW, Balikov, DA, Feaster, TK, Williams, CH, Sheng, CC, Lee, JB, Boire, TC, Neely, MD, Bellan, LM, Ess, KC, Bowman, AB, Sung, HJ, Hong, CC. Combinatorial polymer matrices enhance in vitro maturation of human induced pluripotent cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Biomaterials, 67, 52-64, 2015.

Chun, YW, Voyles, DE, Rath, R, Hofmeister, LH, Boire, TC, Wilcox, H, Lee, JH, Bellan, LM, Hong, CC*, Sung, HJ* *Co-corresponding authors. Differential responses of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to anisotropic strain depends on disease status. J Biomech, , , 2015.

Feaster, TK, Cadar, AG, Wang, L, Williams, CH, Chun, YW, Hempel, J, Bloodworth, N, Merryman, WD, Lim, CC, Wu, JC, Knollmann, BC, Hong, CC. Matrigel Mattress: A Method for the Generation of Single Contracting Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Circ Res, , , 2015.

Habib, A, Polavarapu, R, Karmali, V, Guo, L, Van Dam, R, Cheng, Q, Akahori, H, Saeed, O, Nakano, M, Pachura, K, Hong, CC, Shin, E, Kolodgie, F, Virmani, R, Finn, AV. Hepcidin-ferroportin axis controls toll-like receptor 4 dependent macrophage inflammatory responses in human atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis, 241(2), 692-700, 2015.

Hempel, JE, Hong, CC. Practical strategies for small-molecule probe development in chemical biology. Methods Mol Biol, 1263, 209-23, 2015.

Hempel, JE, Williams, CH, Hong, CC. Preface. Chemical biology. Methods Mol Biol, 1263, v, 2015.

Hover, LD, Young, CD, Bhola, NE, Wilson, AJ, Khabele, D, Hong, CC, Moses, HL, Owens, P. Small molecule inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway DMH1 reduces ovarian cancer cell growth. Cancer Lett, , , 2015.

Hwang, HS, Kryshtal, DO, Feaster, TK, S??nchez-Freire, V, Zhang, J, Kamp, TJ, Hong, CC, Wu, JC, Knollmann, BC. Comparable calcium handling of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes generated by multiple laboratories. J Mol Cell Cardiol, 85, 79-88, 2015.

Wang, X, Chun, YW, Zhong, L, Chiusa, M, Balikov, DA, Frist, AY, Lim, CC, Maltais, S, Bellan, L, Hong, CC*, Sung, HJ* *Co-corresponding authors. A temperature-sensitive, self-adhesive hydrogel to deliver iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes for heart repair. Int J Cardiol, 190, 177-180, 2015.

Williams, CH, Hempel, JE, Hao, J, Frist, AY, Williams, MM, Fleming, JT, Sulikowski, GA, Cooper, MK, Chiang, C, Hong, CC. An In??Vivo Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Phosphodiesterase 4 as a Pharmacological Target for Hedgehog Signaling Inhibition. Cell Rep, 11, 43-50, 2015.

Williams, CH, Hong, CC. High content screening for modulators of cardiovascular or global developmental pathways in zebrafish. Methods Mol Biol, 1263, 167-74, 2015.

Aboud, AA, Tidball, AM, Kumar, KK, Neely, MD, Han, B, Ess, KC, Hong, CC, Erikson, KM, Hedera, P, Bowman, AB. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper. Neurobiol Dis, 73C, 204-212, 2014.

Fotinos, A, Nagarajan, N, Martins, AS, Fritz, DT, Garsetti, D, Lee, AT, Hong, CC, Rogers, MB. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-focused Strategies to Induce Cytotoxicity in Lung Cancer Cells. Anticancer Res, 34(5), 2095-104, 2014.

Owens, P, Pickup, MW, Novitskiy, SV, Giltnane, JM, Gorska, AE, Hopkins, CR, Hong, CC*, Moses, HL.* *Co-senior authors. Inhibition of BMP signaling suppresses metastasis in mammary cancer. Oncogene, , , 2014.

Talati, M, West, J, Zaynagetdinov, R, Hong, CC, Han, W, Blackwell, T, Robinson, L, Blackwell, TS, Lane, K. BMP Pathway Regulation of and by Macrophages. PLoS One, 9(4), e94119, 2014.

Tsugawa, D, Oya, Y, Masuzaki, R, Ray, K, Engers, DW, Dib, M, Do, N, Kuramitsu, K, Ho, K, Frist, A, Yu, PB, Bloch, KD, Lindsley, CW, Hopkins, CR, Hong, CC, Karp, SJ. Specific activin receptor-like kinase 3 inhibitors enhance liver regeneration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 351(3), 549-58, 2014.

West, JD, Austin, ED, Gaskill, C, Marriott, S, Baskir, R, Bilousova, G, Jean, JC, Hemnes, AR, Menon, S, Bloodworth, NC, Fessel, JP, Kropski, JA, Irwin, DC, Ware, LB, Wheeler, LA, Hong, CC, Meyrick, BO, Loyd, JE, Bowman, AB, Ess, KC, Klemm, DJ, Young, PP, Merryman, WD, Kotton, D, Majka, SM. Identification of a Common Wnt Associated Genetic Signature Across Multiple Cell Types in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, , , 2014.

Yang, T, Chun, YW, Stroud, DM, Mosley, JD, Knollmann, BC, Hong, CC, Roden, DM. Screening for Acute IKr Block is Insufficient to Detect Torsades de Pointes Liability: Role of Late Sodium Current. Circulation, , , 2014.

Engers, DW, Frist, AY, Lindsley, CW, Hong, CC, Hopkins, CR. Development of a potent and ALK2 selective bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMP) inhibitor. Probe Reports from the NIH Molecular Libraries Program, , , 2013.

Engers, DW, Frist, AY, Lindsley, CW, Hong, CC, Hopkins, CR. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel and selective bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMP) inhibitor derived from the pyrazolo[1.5-a]pyrimidine scaffold of Dorsomorphin: The discovery of ML347 as an ALK2 versus ALK3 selective MLPCN probe. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 23(11), 3248-52, 2013.

Hao, J, Ao, A, Zhou, L, Murphy, CK, Frist, AY, Keel, JJ, Thorne, CA, Kim, K, Lee, E, Hong, CC. Selective Small Molecule Targeting ??-Catenin Function Discovered by In??Vivo Chemical Genetic Screen. Cell Rep, 4, 107, 2013.

Owens, P, Polikowsky, H, Pickup, MW, Gorska, AE, Jovanovic, B, Shaw, AK, Novitskiy, SV, Hong, CC, Moses, HL. Bone morphogenetic proteins stimulate mammary fibroblasts to promote mammary carcinoma cell invasion. PLoS One, 8(6), e67533, 2013.

Roden, DM, Hong, CC. Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as a tool for studying proarrhythmia: a better canary in the coal mine. Circulation, 127(16), 1641-3, 2013.

Shelton, EL, Galindo, CL, Williams, CH, Pfaltzgraff, E, Hong, CC, Bader, DM. Autotaxin signaling governs phenotypic heterogeneity in visceral and parietal mesothelia. PLoS One, 8(7), e69712, 2013.

Sheng, CC Hao J Hong CC. Chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSC): a potential chemical biological breakthrough in reprogramming? . Chemical Biology in Regenerative Medicine: Bridging Stem Cells and Future Therapies, , , 2013.

Sheng, CC Hong, CC. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Human Cardiovascular Diseases. Pluripotent Stem Cells, Chap. 20, 439-457, 2013.

Sun, CC, Vaja, V, Chen, S, Theurl, I, Stepanek, A, Brown, DE, Cappellini, MD, Weiss, G, Hong, CC, Lin, HY, Babitt, JL. A hepcidin lowering agent mobilizes iron for incorporation into red blood cells in an adenine-induced kidney disease model of anemia in rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 28, 1733-43, 2013.

Wells, QS, Becker, JR, Su, YR, Mosley, JD, Weeke, P, D'Aoust, L, Ausborn, NL, Ramirez, AH, Pfotenhauer, JP, Naftilan, AJ, Markham, L, Exil, V, Roden, DM, Hong, CC. Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies a Causal RBM20 Mutation in a Large Pedigree with Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Genet, 6, 317-326, 2013.

Williams, C, Hong, C. Making Models Work: Library Annotation through Phenoclustering. Drug Discov Today Dis Models, 10(1), , 2013.

Ao, A, Hao, J, Hopkins, CR, Hong, CC. DMH1, a Novel BMP Small Molecule Inhibitor, Increases Cardiomyocyte Progenitors and Promotes Cardiac Differentiation in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. PLoS One, 7(7), e41627, 2012.

Hill, CR, Sanchez, NS, Love, JD, Arrieta, JA, Hong, CC, Brown, CB, Austin, AF, Barnett, JV. BMP2 signals loss of epithelial character in epicardial cells but requires the Type III TGFI? receptor to promote invasion. Cell Signal, 24(5), 1012-22, 2012.

Neely, MD, Litt, MJ, Tidball, AM, Li, GG, Aboud, AA, Hopkins, CR, Chamberlin, R, Hong, CC, Ess, KC, Bowman, AB. DMH1, a Highly Selective Small Molecule BMP Inhibitor Promotes Neurogenesis of hiPSCs: Comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 Expression during Neural Induction. ACS Chem Neurosci, 3(6), 482-91, 2012.

Saeed, O, Otsuka, F, Polavarapu, R, Karmali, V, Weiss, D, Davis, T, Rostad, B, Pachura, K, Adams, L, Elliott, J, Taylor, WR, Narula, J, Kolodgie, F, Virmani, R, Hong, CC*, Finn, AV* (*Co-corresponding authors). Pharmacological suppression of hepcidin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and reduces foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 32(2), 299-307, 2012.

Sheng, CC, Hong, CC. Mixing of the old with the new: nanoparticle-mediated pioglitazone delivery to enhance therapeutic neovascularization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 32(10), 2337-8, 2012.

Wang, L, Trebicka, E, Fu, Y, Ellenbogen, S, Hong, CC, Babitt, JL, Lin, HY, Cherayil, BJ. The bone morphogenetic protein-hepcidin axis as a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 18(1), 112-9, 2012. PMCID:3046139

Ao, A, Hao, J, Hong, CC. Regenerative chemical biology: current challenges and future potential. Chem Biol, 18(4), 413-24, 2011. PMCID:3127116

Ao, A, Williams, CH, Hao, J, Hong, CC. Modified mouse embryonic stem cell based assay for quantifying cardiogenic induction efficiency. J Vis Exp, (50), , 2011. PMCID:3169258

Gupta, MK, Walthall, JM, Venkataraman, R, Crowder, SW, Jung, DK, Yu, SS, Feaster, TK, Wang, X, Giorgio, TD, Hong, CC, Baudenbacher, FJ, Hatzopoulos, AK, Sung, HJ. Combinatorial polymer electrospun matrices promote physiologically-relevant cardiomyogenic stem cell differentiation. PLoS One, 6(12), e28935, 2011. PMCID:3246450

Hao, J, Sawyer, DB, Hatzopoulos, AK, Hong, CC. Recent Progress on Chemical Biology of Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-renewal, Reprogramming and Cardiomyogenesis. Rec Pat Regen Med, 1(3), 263-274, 2011.

Hao, J, Zhou, L, Hong, CC. Chemical biology of pluripotent stem cells: focus on cardiomyogenesis. Embryonic Stem Cells, Chap 3, 51-64, 2011.

Meynard, D, Vaja, V, Sun, CC, Corradini, E, Chen, S, L??pez-Ot?-n, C, Grgurevic, L, Hong, CC, Stirnberg, M, G??tschow, M, Vukicevic, S, Babitt, JL, Lin, HY. Regulation of TMPRSS6 by BMP6 and iron in human cells and mice. Blood, 118(3), 747-56, 2011. PMCID:3127116

Palmisano, BT, Rottman, JN, Wells, QS, DiSalvo, TG, Hong, CC. Familial evaluation for diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Cardiology, 119(1), 47-53, 2011.

Shi, S, Hoogaars, WM, de Gorter, DJ, van Heiningen, SH, Lin, HY, Hong, CC, Kemaladewi, DU, Aartsma-Rus, A, ten Dijke, P, ''t Hoen, PA. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model. Neurobiol Dis, 41(2), 353-60, 2011. PMCID:3046139

The International Clinical Consortium on FOP (Hong, CC, contributing member) . The medical management of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: current management considerations. Clin Proc Intl Clin Consort FOP, (3), 1-100, 2011.

Theurl, I, Schroll, A, Sonnweber, T, Nairz, M, Theurl, M, Willenbacher, W, Eller, K, Wolf, D, Seifert, M, Sun, CC, Babitt, JL, Hong, CC, Menhall, T, Gearing, P, Lin, HY, Weiss, G. Pharmacologic inhibition of hepcidin expression reverses anemia of chronic inflammation in rats. Blood, 118(18), 4977-84, 2011. PMCID:3127116

Wang, H, Hao, J, Hong, CC. Cardiac induction of embryonic stem cells by a small molecule inhibitor of Wnt/I?-catenin signaling. ACS Chem Biol, 6(2), 192-7, 2011. PMCID:3046139

Wells, QS, Ausborn, NL, Funke, BH, Pfotenhauer, JP, Fredi, JL, Baxter, S, Disalvo, TD, Hong, CC. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy associated with congenital defects in the setting of a novel VCL mutation (Lys815Arg) in conjunction with a known MYPBC3 variant. Cardiogenetics, 1(1), , 2011.

Wiley, DM, Kim, JD, Hao, J, Hong, CC, Bautch, VL, Jin, SW. Distinct signalling pathways regulate sprouting angiogenesis from the dorsal aorta and the axial vein. Nat Cell Biol, 13(6), 686-92, 2011. PMCID:3127116

Williams, CH, Hong, CC. Multi-step usage of in vivo models during rational drug design and discovery. Int J Mol Sci, 12(4), 2262-74, 2011. PMCID:3127116

Xia, Y, Cortez-Retamozo, V, Niederkofler, V, Salie, R, Chen, S, Samad, TA, Hong, CC, Arber, S, Vyas, JM, Weissleder, R, Pittet, MJ, Lin, HY. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages. J Immunol, 186(3), 1369-76, 2011. PMCID:3046139

Alfaro, MP, Vincent, A, Saraswati, S, Thorne, CA, Hong, CC, Lee, E, Young, PP. sFRP2 suppression of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling mediates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) self-renewal promoting engraftment and myocardial repair. J Biol Chem, 285(46), 35645-53, 2010. PMCID:3012377

Hao J, Daleo MA, Hong CC. Crosstalk between mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide-3 kinase signaling pathways in development and disease. Systems Biology for Signaling Network, Ed. Choi S., Springer, New York, Ch 21, 505-529, 2010.

Hao, J, Ho, JN, Lewis, JA, Karim, KA, Daniels, RN, Gentry, PR, Hopkins, CR, Lindsley, CW, Hong, CC. In vivo structure-activity relationship study of dorsomorphin analogues identifies selective VEGF and BMP inhibitors. ACS Chem Biol, 5(2), 245-53, 2010. PMCID:2827548

Hao, J, Williams, CH, Webb, ME, Hong, CC. Large scale zebrafish-based in vivo small molecule screen. J Vis Exp, (46), , 2010. PMCID:3127116

Harris, B, Pfotenhauer, JP, Silverstein, CA, Markham, LW, Schafer, K, Exil, VJ, Hong, CC. Serial observations and mutational analysis of an adoptee with family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiol Res Pract, 2010, 697269, 2010. PMCID:2838361

Kaplan, FS, Zasloff, MA, Kitterman, JA, Shore, EM, Hong, CC, Rocke, DM. Early mortality and cardiorespiratory failure in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 92(3), 686-91, 2010. PMCID:2827548

Xia, Y, Babitt, JL, Bouley, R, Zhang, Y, Da Silva, N, Chen, S, Zhuang, Z, Samad, TA, Brenner, GJ, Anderson, JL, Hong, CC, Schneyer, AL, Brown, D, Lin, HY. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells. J Am Soc Nephrol, 21(4), 666-77, 2010. PMCID:2827548

Hong, CC. Large-scale small-molecule screen using zebrafish embryos. Methods Mol Biol, 486, 43-55, 2009.

Hong, CC, Yu, PB. Applications of small molecule BMP inhibitors in physiology and disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 20(5-6), 409-18, 2009. PMCID:2838361

Wang, L, Harrington, L, Trebicka, E, Shi, HN, Kagan, JC, Hong, CC, Lin, HY, Babitt, JL, Cherayil, BJ. Selective modulation of TLR4-activated inflammatory responses by altered iron homeostasis in mice. J Clin Invest, 119(11), 3322-8, 2009. PMCID:2769199

Hao, J, Daleo, MA, Murphy, CK, Yu, PB, Ho, JN, Hu, J, Peterson, RT, Hatzopoulos, AK, Hong, CC. Dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, promotes cardiomyogenesis in embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE, 3(8), e2904, 2008. PMCID:2483414

Hong, CC, Kume, T, Peterson, RT. Role of crosstalk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in artery-vein specification. Circ Res, 103(6), 573-9, 2008. PMCID:2768581

The International Clinical Consortium on FOP (Hong, CC, contributing member). The medical management of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: current management considerations. Clin Proc Intl Clin Consort FOP, 3, 1-82, 2008.

Yu, PB*, Hong, CC*, Sachidanandan, C, Babitt, JL, Deng, DY, Hoyng, SA, Lin, HY, Bloch, KD, Peterson, RT (*co-first authors). Dorsomorphin inhibits BMP signals required for embryogenesis and iron metabolism. Nat Chem Biol, 4(1), 33-41, 2008. PMCID:2727650

Yu, PB, Deng, DY, Beppu, H, Hong, CC, Lai, C, Hoyng, SA, Kawai, N, Bloch, KD. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor is required for BMP-mediated growth arrest and differentiation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem, 283(7), 3877-88, 2008. PMCID:2570262

Yu, PB, Deng, DY, Lai, CS, Hong, CC, Cuny, GD, Bouxsein, ML, Hong, DW, McManus, PM, Katagiri, T, Sachidanandan, C, Kamiya, N, Fukuda, T, Mishina, Y, Peterson, RT, Bloch, KD. BMP type I receptor inhibition reduces heterotopic [corrected] ossification. Nat Med, 14(12), 1363-9, 2008. PMCID:2846458

Hong, CC, Peterson, QP, Hong, JY, Peterson, RT. Artery/vein specification is governed by opposing phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and MAP kinase/ERK signaling. Curr Biol, 16(13), 1366-72, 2006. PMCID:1930149

LeMosy, EK, Hong, CC, Hashimoto, C. Signal transduction by a protease cascade. Trends Cell Biol, 9(3), 102-7, 1999.

Hong, CC, Hashimoto, C. The maternal nudel protein of Drosophila has two distinct roles important for embryogenesis. Genetics, 143(4), 1653-61, 1996. PMCID:1207428

Hong, CC, Hashimoto, C. An unusual mosaic protein with a protease domain, encoded by the nudel gene, is involved in defining embryonic dorsoventral polarity in Drosophila. Cell, 82(5), 785-94, 1995.

de la Monte, SM, Quertermous, T, Hong, CC, Bloch, KD. Regional and maturation-associated expression of endothelin 2 in rat gastrointestinal tract. J Histochem Cytochem, 43(2), 203-9, 1995.

Cicila, GT, Rapp, JP, Bloch, KD, Kurtz, TW, Pravenec, M, Kren, V, Hong, CC, Quertermous, T, Ng, SC. Cosegregation of the endothelin-3 locus with blood pressure and relative heart weight in inbred Dahl rats. J Hypertens, 12(6), 643-51, 1994.

Bloch, KD, Hong, CC, Eddy, RL, Shows, TB, Quertermous, T. cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment of the endothelin 2 gene: vasoactive intestinal contractor peptide is rat endothelin 2. Genomics, 10(1), 236-42, 1991.

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