Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Ikizler, T. Alp , M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Catherine McLaughlin Hakim Chair in Vascular Biology

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Phone Number: 343-6104


Ikizler, T.'s picture

Office Address   Mailing Address

S-3223 MCN 2372

Research Description

Clinical Research Description
Our main research interest is focused on the nutritional aspects of patients with renal failure. These patients include the ones with chronic kidney disease who are not yet on dialysis, end-stage renal failure (ESRD) patients on different forms of renal replacement therapy such as chronic hemodialysis (CHD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and kidney transplant, and patients with acute renal failure. Multiple studies have shown that protein-caloric malnutrition (PCM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in renal failure patients. This wide spectrum of patients uniformly displays signs and symptoms of PCMin a unique pattern, which can be termed as Uremic Malnutrition. One of our research goals is to identify reliable and practical markers of nutritional status in renal failure patients to better understand the extent of uremic malnutrition. We utilize multiple techniques such as labeled isotope studies (deuterium oxide, sodium bromide, labeled urea) as well as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography to study the nutritional status of renal failure patients. Our laboratory is also interested in exploring the factors that predispose renal failure patients to uremic malnutrition. For this purpose, we are performing studies using stable isotope kinetic methodology to examine protein and energy homeostasis in renal failure patients. We also utilize these techniques to assess the metabolic response to several preventive and interventional treatment strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of renal failure patients.

Clinical Interests
End-stage Renal Disease, Hemodialysis, Acute Renal Failure, Vascular Access, Nutrition, Metabolism

Billings, FT, Pretorius, M, Schildcrout, JS, Mercaldo, ND, Byrne, JG, Ikizler, TA, Brown, NJ. Obesity and oxidative stress predict AKI after cardiac surgery. J Am Soc Nephrol, 23(7), 1221-8, 2012.

Birdwell, KA, Grady, B, Choi, L, Xu, H, Bian, A, Denny, JC, Jiang, M, Vranic, G, Basford, M, Cowan, JD, Richardson, DM, Robinson, MP, Ikizler, TA, Ritchie, MD, Stein, CM, Haas, DW. The use of a DNA biobank linked to electronic medical records to characterize pharmacogenomic predictors of tacrolimus dose requirement in kidney transplant recipients. Pharmacogenet Genomics, 22(1), 32-42, 2012.

Birdwell, KA, Ikizler, MR, Wang, L, Byrne, DW, Sannella, EC, Wright, PF, Ikizler, TA. Seasonal maintenance of influenza vaccine-induced antibody response in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Nephrol, 36(3), 201-7, 2012.

Deger, SM, Sundell, MB, Siew, ED, Egbert, P, Ellis, CD, Sha, F, Ikizler, TA, Hung, AM. Insulin Resistance and Protein Metabolism in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. J Ren Nutr, , , 2012.

Gamboa, JL, Pretorius, M, Todd-Tzanetos, DR, Luther, JM, Yu, C, Ikizler, TA, Brown, NJ. Comparative effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin-receptor blockade on inflammation during hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol, 23(2), 334-42, 2012.

Hung, AM, Roumie, CL, Greevy, RA, Liu, X, Grijalva, CG, Murff, HJ, Ikizler, TA, Griffin, MR. Comparative effectiveness of incident oral antidiabetic drugs on kidney function. Kidney Int, 81(7), 698-706, 2012.

Hung, AM, Sundell, MB, Plotnikova, NE, Bian, A, Shintani, A, Ellis, CD, Siew, ED, Ikizler, TA. A Pilot Study of Active Vitamin D Administration and Insulin Resistance in African American Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr, , , 2012.

King-Morris, K, Ikizler, TA. Insulin Resistance in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: Can We Improve It? : Editorial to: "The Effect of HM-CoA Reductase Inhibitor on Insulin Resistance in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis" by Fa Mee Doh et al. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 26(6), 441-3, 2012.

Lipworth, L, Mumma, MT, Cavanaugh, KL, Edwards, TL, Ikizler, TA, Tarone, RE, McLaughlin, JK, Blot, WJ. Incidence and Predictors of End Stage Renal Disease among Low-Income Blacks and Whites. PLoS One, 7(10), e48407, 2012.

Maripuri, S, Arbogast, P, Ikizler, TA, Cavanaugh, KL. Rural and micropolitan residence and mortality in patients on dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 7(7), 1121-9, 2012.

Schnelle, JF, Buchowski, MS, Ikizler, TA, Durkin, DW, Beuscher, L, Simmons, SF. Evaluation of two fatigability severity measures in elderly adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 60(8), 1527-33, 2012.

Siew, ED, Ikizler, TA, Matheny, ME, Shi, Y, Schildcrout, JS, Danciu, I, Dwyer, JP, Srichai, M, Hung, AM, Smith, JP, Peterson, JF. Estimating baseline kidney function in hospitalized patients with impaired kidney function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 7(5), 712-9, 2012.

Siew, ED, Peterson, JF, Eden, SK, Hung, AM, Speroff, T, Ikizler, TA, Matheny, ME. Outpatient nephrology referral rates after acute kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol, 23(2), 305-12, 2012.

Siew, ED, Peterson, JF, Eden, SK, Moons, KG, Ikizler, TA, Matheny, ME. Use of Multiple Imputation Method to Improve Estimation of Missing Baseline Serum Creatinine in Acute Kidney Injury Research. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, , , 2012.

Yamamoto, S, Yancey, PG, Ikizler, TA, Jerome, WG, Kaseda, R, Cox, B, Bian, A, Shintani, A, Fogo, AB, Linton, MF, Fazio, S, Kon, V. Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Am Coll Cardiol, 60(23), 2372-9, 2012.

Buchowski, MS, Simmons, SF, Whitaker, LE, Powers, J, Beuscher, L, Choi, L, Ikizler, TA, Chen, K, Shnelle, JF. Fatigability as a function of physical activity energy expenditure in older adults. Age (Dordr), , , 2011.

Hung, AM, Ikizler, TA, Griffin, MR, Glenn, K, Greevy, RA, Grijalva, CG, Siew, ED, Crawford, DC. CRP polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. BMC Med Genet, 12, 65, 2011.

Ikizler, TA. Common nutritional misconceptions in dialysis patients. Semin Dial, 24(5), 510-2, 2011.

Maripuri, S, Penson, DF, Ikizler, TA, Cavanaugh, KL. Outpatient versus inpatient observation after percutaneous native kidney biopsy: a cost minimization study. Am J Nephrol, 34(1), 64-70, 2011.

Wright Nunes, JA, Wallston, KA, Eden, SK, Shintani, AK, Ikizler, TA, Cavanaugh, KL. Associations among perceived and objective disease knowledge and satisfaction with physician communication in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 80(12), 1344-51, 2011.

Birdwell, KA, Ikizler, MR, Sannella, EC, Wang, L, Byrne, DW, Ikizler, TA, Wright, PF. Decreased Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Cohort Study. Am J Kidney Dis, , , 2009.

Brunelli, SM, Thadhani, R, Ikizler, TA, Feldman, HI. Thiazolidinedione use is associated with better survival in hemodialysis patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. Kidney Int, 75(9), 961-8, 2009.

Ikizler, TA. Dietary protein restriction in CKD: the debate continues. Am J Kidney Dis, 53(2), 189-91, 2009.

Ikizler, TA. Nutrition support for the chronically wasted or acutely catabolic chronic kidney disease patient. Semin Nephrol, 29(1), 75-84, 2009.

Caglar, K, Yilmaz, MI, Saglam, M, Cakir, E, Kilic, S, Sonmez, A, Eyileten, T, Yenicesu, M, Oguz, Y, Tasar, M, Vural, A, Ikizler, TA, Stenvinkel, P, Lindholm, B. Serum Fetuin-A Concentration and Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nephron Clin Pract, , , 2008.

Crowley, ST, Chertow, GM, Vitale, J, O''Connor, T, Zhang, J, Schein, RM, Choudhury, D, Finkel, K, Vijayan, A, Paganini, E, Palevsky, PM, , . Lessons for successful study enrollment from the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 3(4), 955-61, 2008. PMCID:2440269

Dember, LM, Beck, GJ, Allon, M, Delmez, JA, Dixon, BS, Greenberg, A, Himmelfarb, J, Vazquez, MA, Gassman, JJ, Greene, T, Radeva, MK, Braden, GL, Ikizler, TA, Rocco, MV, Davidson, IJ, Kaufman, JS, Meyers, CM, Kusek, JW, Feldman, HI, , . Effect of clopidogrel on early failure of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 299(18), 2164-71, 2008.

Fouque, D, Kalantar-Zadeh, K, Kopple, J, Cano, N, Chauveau, P, Cuppari, L, Franch, H, Guarnieri, G, Ikizler, TA, Kaysen, G, Lindholm, B, Massy, Z, Mitch, W, Pineda, E, Stenvinkel, P, Trevinho-Becerra, A, Wanner, C. A proposed nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for protein-energy wasting in acute and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 73(4), 391-8, 2008.

Hung, A, Pupim, L, Yu, C, Shintani, A, Siew, E, Ayus, C, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Determinants of C-reactive protein in chronic hemodialysis patients: relevance of dialysis catheter utilization. Hemodial Int, 12(2), 236-43, 2008.

Hung, AM, Ikizler, TA. Hemodialysis central venous catheters as a source of inflammation and its implications. Semin Dial, 21(5), 401-4, 2008.

Ikizler, TA. Parenteral nutrition offers no benefit over oral supplementation in malnourished hemodialysis patients. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol, 4(2), 76-7, 2008.

Ikizler, TA. Resolved: Being Fat Is Good for Dialysis Patients: The Godzilla Effect. J Am Soc Nephrol, , , 2008.

Ikizler, TA. Nutrition, inflammation and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, 17(2), 162-7, 2008.

Kopple, JD, Cheung, AK, Christiansen, JS, Djurhuus, CB, El Nahas, M, Feldt-Rasmussen, B, Lange, M, Mitch, WE, Wanner, C, Wiedemann, J, Ikizler, TA. OPPORTUNITY: a randomized clinical trial of growth hormone on outcome in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 3(6), 1741-51, 2008. PMCID:2572295

Mehrotra, R, Martin, KJ, Fishbane, S, Sprague, SM, Zeig, S, Anger, M, , . Higher strength lanthanum carbonate provides serum phosphorus control with a low tablet burden and is preferred by patients and physicians: a multicenter study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 3(5), 1437-45, 2008. PMCID:2518797

Ramos, LF, Shintani, A, Ikizler, TA, Himmelfarb, J. Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with adiposity in moderate to severe CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol, 19(3), 593-9, 2008. PMCID:2391046

Siew, ED, Ikizler, TA. Determinants of insulin resistance and its effects on protein metabolism in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Contrib Nephrol, 161, 138-44, 2008.

Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA. Acute kidney injury: changing lexicography, definitions, and epidemiology. Kidney Int, , , 2007.

Himmelfarb, J, Phinney, S, Ikizler, TA, Kane, J, McMonagle, E, Miller, G. Gamma-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid decrease inflammation in dialysis patients. J Ren Nutr, 17(5), 296-304, 2007.

Ikizler, TA. Effects of glucose homeostasis on protein metabolism in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr, 17(1), 13-6, 2007.

Ikizler, TA. Protein and energy intake in advanced chronic kidney disease: how much is too much. Semin Dial, 20(1), 5-11, 2007.

Lacson, E, Ikizler, TA, Lazarus, JM, Teng, M, Hakim, RM. Potential impact of nutritional intervention on end-stage renal disease hospitalization, death, and treatment costs. J Ren Nutr, 17(6), 363-71, 2007.

Lacson, E, Lazarus, JM, Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA, Hakim, RM. Balancing Fistula First with Catheters Last. Am J Kidney Dis, 50(3), 379-95, 2007.

Majchrzak, KM, Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Resistance Exercise Augments the Acute Anabolic Effects of Intradialytic Oral Nutritional Supplementation. Nephrol Dial Transplant, , , 2007.

Majchrzak, KM, Pupim, LB, Sundell, M, Ikizler, TA. Body composition and physical activity in end-stage renal disease. J Ren Nutr, 17(3), 196-204, 2007. PMCID:2746570

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Exercise improves albumin fractional synthetic rate in chronic hemodialysis patients. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61(5), 686-9, 2007.

Siew, ED, Pupim, LB, Majchrzak, KM, Shintani, A, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Insulin resistance is associated with skeletal muscle protein breakdown in non-diabetic chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 71(2), 146-52, 2007.

Trirogoff, ML, Shintani, A, Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA. Body mass index and fat mass are the primary correlates of insulin resistance in nondiabetic stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients. Am J Clin Nutr, 86(6), 1642-8, 2007.

Wingard, RL, Pupim, LB, Krishnan, M, Shintani, A, Ikizler, TA, Hakim, RM. Early intervention improves mortality and hospitalization rates in incident hemodialysis patients: RightStart program. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2(6), 1170-5, 2007.

Chertow, GM, Soroko, SH, Paganini, EP, Cho, KC, Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA, Mehta, RL. Mortality after acute renal failure: models for prognostic stratification and risk adjustment. Kidney Int, 70(6), 1120-6, 2006.

Cho, KC, Himmelfarb, J, Paganini, E, Ikizler, TA, Soroko, SH, Mehta, RL, Chertow, GM. Survival by dialysis modality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol, 17(11), 3132-8, 2006.

Ikizler, TA, Himmelfarb, J. Muscle wasting in kidney disease: Let''s get physical. J Am Soc Nephrol, 17(8), 2097-8, 2006.

Ikizler, TA, Himmelfarb, J. Trials and trade-offs in haemodialysis vascular access monitoring. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 21(12), 3362-3, 2006.

Liu, KD, Himmelfarb, J, Paganini, E, Ikizler, TA, Soroko, SH, Mehta, RL, Chertow, GM. Timing of initiation of dialysis in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 1(5), 915-9, 2006.

Pupim, LB, Cuppari, L, Ikizler, TA. Nutrition and metabolism in kidney disease. Semin Nephrol, 26(2), 134-57, 2006.

Pupim, LB, Majchrzak, KM, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Intradialytic oral nutrition improves protein homeostasis in chronic hemodialysis patients with deranged nutritional status. J Am Soc Nephrol, 17(11), 3149-57, 2006.

Yilmaz, MI, Korkmaz, A, Kaya, A, Sonmez, A, Caglar, K, Topal, T, Eyileten, T, Yenicesu, M, Acikel, C, Oter, S, Yaman, H, Aktug, H, Oguz, Y, Vural, A, Ikizler, TA. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment augments the efficacy of a losartan regime in an experimental nephrotic syndrome model. Nephron Exp Nephrol, 104(1), e15-22, 2006.

Basi, S, Pupim, LB, Simmons, EM, Sezer, MT, Shyr, Y, Freedman, S, Chertow, GM, Mehta, RL, Paganini, E, Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA. Insulin resistance in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 289(2), F259-64, 2005.

Ikizler, TA. Protein and energy: recommended intake and nutrient supplementation in chronic dialysis patients. Semin Dial, 17(6), 471-8, 2005.

Ikizler, TA. Effects of hemodialysis on protein metabolism. J Ren Nutr, 15(1), 39-43, 2005.

Ikizler, TA, Schulman, G. Hemodialysis: techniques and prescription. Am J Kidney Dis, 46(5), 976-81, 2005.

Lim, VS, Ikizler, TA, Raj, DS, Flanigan, MJ. Does hemodialysis increase protein breakdown? Dissociation between whole-body amino acid turnover and regional muscle kinetics. J Am Soc Nephrol, 16(4), 862-8, 2005.

Majchrzak, KM, Pupim, LB, Chen, K, Martin, CJ, Gaffney, S, Greene, JH, Ikizler, TA. Physical activity patterns in chronic hemodialysis patients: comparison of dialysis and nondialysis days. J Ren Nutr, 15(2), 217-24, 2005.

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Majchrzak, KM, Aftab Guy, DL, Stenvinkel, P, Ikizler, TA. Increased muscle protein breakdown in chronic hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int, 68(4), 1857-65, 2005.

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Yu, C, Ikizler, TA. Recombinant human growth hormone improves muscle amino acid uptake and whole-body protein metabolism in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr, 82(6), 1235-43, 2005.

Pupim, LB, Heimb??rger, O, Qureshi, AR, Ikizler, TA, Stenvinkel, P. Accelerated lean body mass loss in incident chronic dialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int, 68(5), 2368-74, 2005.

Simmons, EM, Langone, A, Sezer, MT, Vella, JP, Recupero, P, Morrow, JD, Ikizler, TA, Himmelfarb, J. Effect of renal transplantation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients. Transplantation, 79(8), 914-9, 2005.

Yenicesu, M, Yilmaz, MI, Caglar, K, Sonmez, A, Eyileten, T, Kir, T, Acikel, C, Bingol, N, Oguz, Y, Ikizler, TA, Vural, A. Adiponectin level is reduced and inversely correlated with the degree of proteinuria in type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Nephrol, 64(1), 12-9, 2005.

Eustace, Joseph A, Astor, Brad, Muntner, Paul M, Ikizler, T Alp, Coresh, Josef. Prevalence of acidosis and inflammation and their association with low serum albumin in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 65(3), 1031-40, 2004.

Flakoll, Paul J, Kent, Pamela, Neyra, Roxanna, Levenhagen, Deanna, Chen, Kong Y, Ikizler, T Alp. Bioelectrical impedance vs air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition in patients with end-stage renal disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 28(1), 13-21, 2004.

Himmelfarb, J, Le, P, Klenzak, J, Freedman, S, McMenamin, ME, Ikizler, TA, , . Impaired monocyte cytokine production in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int, 66(6), 2354-60, 2004.

Himmelfarb, J, McMonagle, E, Freedman, S, Klenzak, J, McMenamin, E, Le, P, Pupim, LB, Ikizler, TA, The PICARD Group, . Oxidative stress is increased in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(9), 2449-56, 2004.

Ikizler, T Alp, Sezer, M Tugrul, Flakoll, Paul J, Hariachar, Sree, Kanagasundaram, N Suren, Gritter, Nancy, Knights, Stephanie, Shyr, Yu, Paganini, Emil, Hakim, Raymond M, Himmelfarb, Jonathan, , . Urea space and total body water measurements by stable isotopes in patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int, 65(2), 725-32, 2004.

Ikizler, TA. Role of nutrition for cardiovascular risk reduction in chronic kidney disease patients. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, 11(2), 162-71, 2004.

Mehta, RL, Pascual, MT, Soroko, S, Savage, BR, Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA, Paganini, EP, Chertow, GM, , . Spectrum of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit: the PICARD experience. Kidney Int, 66(4), 1613-21, 2004.

Oberg, B Payson, McMenamin, Elizabeth, Lucas, F Lee, McMonagle, Ellen, Morrow, Jason, Ikizler, T Alp, Himmelfarb, Jonathan. Increased prevalence of oxidant stress and inflammation in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int, 65(3), 1009-16, 2004.

Pupim, LB, Caglar, K, Hakim, RM, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA. Uremic malnutrition is a predictor of death independent of inflammatory status. Kidney Int, 66(5), 2054-60, 2004.

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Protein homeostasis in chronic hemodialysis patients. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 7(1), 89-95, 2004.

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Ikizler, TA. Nutritional supplementation acutely increases albumin fractional synthetic rate in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 15(7), 1920-6, 2004.

Pupim, LB, Himmelfarb, J, McMonagle, E, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA. Influence of initiation of maintenance hemodialysis on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Kidney Int, 65(6), 2371-9, 2004.

Pupim, Lara B, Flakoll, Paul J, Levenhagen, Deanna K, Ikizler, T Alp. Exercise augments the acute anabolic effects of intradialytic parenteral nutrition in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 286(4), E589-97, 2004.

Pupim, Lara B, Ikizler, T Alp. Assessment and monitoring of uremic malnutrition. J Ren Nutr, 14(1), 6-19, 2004.

Simmons, EM, Himmelfarb, J, Sezer, MT, Chertow, GM, Mehta, RL, Paganini, EP, Soroko, S, Freedman, S, Becker, K, Spratt, D, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA, , . Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int, 65(4), 1357-65, 2004.

Chertow, Glenn M, Pascual, Maria T, Soroko, Sharon, Savage, Brandon R, Himmelfarb, Jonathan, Ikizler, T Alp, Paganini, Emil P, Mehta, Ravindra L, , . Reasons for non-enrollment in a cohort study of ARF: the Program to Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease (PICARD) experience and implications for a clinical trials network. Am J Kidney Dis, 42(3), 507-12, 2003.

Danielski, Michael, Ikizler, T Alp, McMonagle, Ellen, Kane, Jane Conner, Pupim, Lara, Morrow, Jason, Himmelfarb, Jonathan. Linkage of hypoalbuminemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Am J Kidney Dis, 42(2), 286-94, 2003.

Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar, Ikizler, T Alp, Block, Gladys, Avram, Morrel M, Kopple, Joel D. Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome in dialysis patients: causes and consequences. Am J Kidney Dis, 42(5), 864-81, 2003.

Neyra, R, Chen, KY, Sun, M, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Increased resting energy expenditure in patients with end-stage renal disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 27(1), 36-42, 2003.

Pupim, LB, Ikizler, TA. Uremic malnutrition: new insights into an old problem. Semin Dial, 16(3), 224-32, 2003.

Pupim, Lara B, Evanson, James A, Hakim, Raymond M, Ikizler, T Alp. The extent of uremic malnutrition at the time of initiation of maintenance hemodialysis is associated with subsequent hospitalization. J Ren Nutr, 13(4), 259-66, 2003.

Yildiz, Alaattin, Oflaz, Huseyin, Pusuroglu, Hamdi, Mercanoglu, Fehmi, Genchallac, Hakan, Akkaya, Vakur, Ikizler, T Alp, Sever, Mehmet S. Left ventricular hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 41(3), 616-23, 2003.

Caglar, K, Fedje, L, Dimmitt, R, Hakim, RM, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA. Therapeutic effects of oral nutritional supplementation during hemodialysis. Kidney Int, 62(3), 1054-9, 2002.

Caglar, K, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Approaches to the reversal of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease. Nutr Rev, 60(11), 378-87, 2002.

Caglar, K, Peng, Y, Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Levenhagen, D, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Inflammatory signals associated with hemodialysis. Kidney Int, 62(4), 1408-16, 2002.

Himmelfarb, J, Evanson, J, Hakim, RM, Freedman, S, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA. Urea volume of distribution exceeds total body water in patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int, 61(1), 317-23, 2002.

Himmelfarb, J, Stenvinkel, P, Ikizler, TA, Hakim, RM. The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia. Kidney Int, 62(5), 1524-38, 2002.

Ikizler, TA. Epidemiology of vascular disease in renal failure. Blood Purif, 20(1), 6-10, 2002.

Ikizler, TA, Morrow, JD, Roberts, LJ, Evanson, JA, Becker, B, Hakim, RM, Shyr, Y, Himmelfarb, J. Plasma F2-isoprostane levels are elevated in chronic hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol, 58(3), 190-7, 2002.

Ikizler, TA, Pupim, LB, Brouillette, JR, Levenhagen, DK, Farmer, K, Hakim, RM, Flakoll, PJ. Hemodialysis stimulates muscle and whole body protein loss and alters substrate oxidation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 282(1), E107-16, 2002.

Pupim, LB, Flakoll, PJ, Brouillette, JR, Levenhagen, DK, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition improves protein and energy homeostasis in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Clin Invest, 110(4), 483-92, 2002. PMCID:150418

Pupim, LB, Kent, P, Caglar, K, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Improvement in nutritional parameters after initiation of chronic hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis, 40(1), 143-51, 2002.

Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Use of vascular access blood flow to evaluate vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis, 37(2), 451-2, 2001.

McCarley, P, Wingard, RL, Shyr, Y, Pettus, W, Hakim, RM, Ikizler, TA. Vascular access blood flow monitoring reduces access morbidity and costs. Kidney Int, 60(3), 1164-72, 2001.

Saadeh, E, Ikizler, TA, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM, Himmelfarb, J. Recombinant human growth hormone in patients with acute renal failure. J Ren Nutr, 11(4), 212-9, 2001.

T. Alp Ikizler. Nutrition and Renal Failure. Primer in Kidney Diseases 3rd edition Greenberg Editor, 3rd Ed., 420-425, 2001.

Bergstr??m, J, Lindholm, B, Lacson, E, Owen, W, Lowrie, EG, Glassock, RJ, Ikizler, TA, Wessels, FJ, Moldawer, LL, Wanner, C, Zimmermann, J. What are the causes and consequences of the chronic inflammatory state in chronic dialysis patients. Semin Dial, 13(3), 163-75, 2000.

Himmelfarb, J, Ikizler, TA. Quantitating urea removal in patients with acute renal failure: lost art or forgotten science. Semin Dial, 13(3), 147-9, 2000.

Matsuo, K, Ikizler, TA, Hoover, RL, Nakamoto, M, Yasunaga, C, Pupim, LB, Hakim, RM. Transforming growth factor-beta is involved in the pathogenesis of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int, 57(2), 697-708, 2000.

Neyra, NR, Hakim, RM, Shyr, Y, Ikizler, TA. Serum transferrin and serum prealbumin are early predictors of serum albumin in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr, 10(4), 184-90, 2000.

Pupim, LB, Kent, P, Ikizler, TA. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in dialysis patients. Miner Electrolyte Metab, 25(4-6), 400-6, 2000.

T. Alp Ikizler and Jonathan Himmelfarb. Nutritional Complications in Chronic Hemo- and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients In Complications of Dialysis. Mehta & Lamiere Editors, , , 2000.

T. Alp Ikizler and Raymond M. Hakim. Parenteral Nutrition and Renal failure. Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition Rombeau and Rolandelli Editors, 3rd Ed., p. 366-391, 2000.

Evanson, JA, Ikizler, TA, Wingard, R, Knights, S, Shyr, Y, Schulman, G, Himmelfarb, J, Hakim, RM. Measurement of the delivery of dialysis in acute renal failure. Kidney Int, 55(4), 1501-8, 1999.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Harvell, J, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM. Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study. Kidney Int, 55(5), 1945-51, 1999.

Rehman, SU, Pupim, LB, Shyr, Y, Hakim, R, Ikizler, TA. Intradialytic serial vascular access flow measurements. Am J Kidney Dis, 34(3), 471-7, 1999.

Evanson, JA, Himmelfarb, J, Wingard, R, Knights, S, Shyr, Y, Schulman, G, Ikizler, TA, Hakim, RM. Prescribed versus delivered dialysis in acute renal failure patients. Am J Kidney Dis, 32(5), 731-8, 1998.

Neyra, NR, Ikizler, TA, May, RE, Himmelfarb, J, Schulman, G, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM. Change in access blood flow over time predicts vascular access thrombosis. Kidney Int, 54(5), 1714-9, 1998.

Ikizler, TA, Himmelfarb, J. Nutrition in acute renal failure patients. Adv Ren Replace Ther, 4(2 Suppl 1), 54-63, 1997.

Ikizler, TA, Schulman, G. Adequacy of dialysis. Kidney Int Suppl, 62, S96-100, 1997.

Ismail, N, Ikizler, TA. Erythropoietin-induced hypertension. J Med Liban, 45(1), 25-30, 1997.

May, RE, Himmelfarb, J, Yenicesu, M, Knights, S, Ikizler, TA, Schulman, G, Hernanz-Schulman, M, Shyr, Y, Hakim, RM. Predictive measures of vascular access thrombosis: a prospective study. Kidney Int, 52(6), 1656-62, 1997.

Ikizler, TA, Greene, JH, Yenicesu, M, Schulman, G, Wingard, RL, Hakim, RM. Nitrogen balance in hospitalized chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Suppl, 57, S53-6, 1996.

Ikizler, TA, Hakim, RM. Nutrition in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int, 50(2), 343-57, 1996.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Flakoll, PJ, Schulman, G, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on plasma and dialysate amino acid profiles in CAPD patients. Kidney Int, 50(1), 229-34, 1996.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Sun, M, Harvell, J, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Increased energy expenditure in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol, 7(12), 2646-53, 1996.

Parker, TF, Wingard, RL, Husni, L, Ikizler, TA, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Effect of the membrane biocompatibility on nutritional parameters in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int, 49(2), 551-6, 1996.

Ikizler, TA, Greene, JH, Wingard, RL, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Spontaneous dietary protein intake during progression of chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol, 6(5), 1386-91, 1995.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Hakim, RM. Interventions to treat malnutrition in dialysis patients: the role of the dose of dialysis, intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and growth hormone. Am J Kidney Dis, 26(1), 256-65, 1995.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Hakim, RM. Malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients: etiologic factors and treatment options. Perit Dial Int, 15(5 Suppl), S63-6, 1995.

Ikizler, TA, Flakoll, PJ, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis. Kidney Int, 46(3), 830-7, 1994.

Ikizler, TA, Wingard, RL, Breyer, JA, Schulman, G, Parker, RA, Hakim, RM. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone in CAPD patients. Kidney Int, 46(4), 1178-83, 1994.

Ikizler, A. Eran, A. Obek. Effects of intravenous amino acid treatment in patients with chronic renal failure. Sisli Etfal Medical Bulletin, 92/1(Vol.26), 40-44, 1992.

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