Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Ray, Wayne A. , Ph.D.
Professor of Health Policy

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Email Address:wayne.ray@vanderbilt.edu

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Suite 2600 37232-4093


Research Keywords
schizophrenia

Publications
Cooper, WO, Hernandez-Diaz, S, Arbogast, PG, Dudley, JA, Dyer, S, Gideon, PS, Hall, K, Ray, WA. Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N Engl J Med, 354(23), 2443-51, 2006.

Ray, WA, Stein, CM. Reform of drug regulation--beyond an independent drug-safety board. N Engl J Med, 354(2), 194-201, 2006.

Cooper, WO, Arbogast, PG, Ding, H, Hickson, GB, Fuchs, DC, Ray, WA. Trends in prescribing of antipsychotic medications for US children. Ambul Pediatr, 6(2), 79-83, 2005.

Cooper, WO, Arbogast, PG, Hickson, GB, Daugherty, JR, Ray, WA. Gaps in enrollment from a Medicaid managed care program: effects on emergency department visits and hospitalizations for children with asthma. Med Care, 43(7), 718-25, 2005.

Poulose, BK, Ray, WA, Arbogast, PG, Needleman, J, Buerhaus, PI, Griffin, MR, Abumrad, NN, Beauchamp, RD, Holzman, MD. Resident work hour limits and patient safety. Ann Surg, 241(6), 847-56; discussion 856-60, 2005. PMCID:1357165

Ray, WA. Observational studies of drugs and mortality. N Engl J Med, 353(22), 2319-21, 2005.

Ray, WA, Taylor, JA, Brown, AK, Gideon, P, Hall, K, Arbogast, P, Meredith, S. Prevention of fall-related injuries in long-term care: a randomized controlled trial of staff education. Arch Intern Med, 165(19), 2293-8, 2005.

Butler, Javed, Arbogast, Patrick G, Daugherty, James, Jain, Manoj K, Ray, Wayne A, Griffin, Marie R. Outpatient utilization of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors among heart failure patients after hospital discharge. J Am Coll Cardiol, 43(11), 2036-43, 2004.

Cooper, William O, Hickson, Gerald B, Fuchs, Catherine, Arbogast, Patrick G, Ray, Wayne A. New users of antipsychotic medications among children enrolled in TennCare. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 158(8), 753-9, 2004.

Cooper, William O, Hickson, Gerald B, Ray, Wayne A. Prescriptions for contraindicated category X drugs in pregnancy among women enrolled in TennCare. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 18(2), 106-11, 2004.

Griffin, Marie R, Stein, C Michael, Graham, David J, Daugherty, James R, Arbogast, Patrick G, Ray, Wayne A. High frequency of use of rofecoxib at greater than recommended doses: cause for concern. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 13(6), 339-43, 2004.

Griffin, Marie R, Stein, C Michael, Ray, Wayne A. Postmarketing surveillance for drug safety: surely we can do better. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 75(6), 491-4, 2004.

Murray, KT, Rottman, JN, Arbogast, PG, Shemanski, L, Primm, RK, Campbell, WB, Solomon, AJ, Olgin, JE, Wilson, MJ, Dimarco, JP, Beckman, KJ, Dennish, G, Naccarelli, GV, Ray, WA, , . Inhibition of angiotensin II signaling and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in AFFIRM. Heart Rhythm, 1(6), 669-75, 2004.

Ray, Wayne A, Meredith, Sarah, Thapa, Purushottam B, Hall, Kathi, Murray, Katherine T. Cyclic antidepressants and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 75(3), 234-41, 2004.

Ray, Wayne A, Murray, Katherine T, Meredith, Sarah, Narasimhulu, Sukumar Suguna, Hall, Kathi, Stein, C Michael. Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes. N Engl J Med, 351(11), 1089-96, 2004.

Rogers, Selwyn O, Ray, Wayne A, Smalley, Walter E. A population-based study of survival among elderly persons diagnosed with colorectal cancer: does race matter if all are insured? (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 15(2), 193-9, 2004.

Khaitan, Leena, Ray, Wayne A, Holzman, Michael D, Smalley, Walter E. Health care utilization after medical and surgical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study, 1996 to 2000. Arch Surg, 138(12), 1356-61, 2003.

Ray, Wayne A. Evaluating medication effects outside of clinical trials: new-user designs. Am J Epidemiol, 158(9), 915-20, 2003.

Ray, Wayne A, Daugherty, James R, Meador, Keith G. Effect of a mental health 'carve-out' program on the continuity of antipsychotic therapy. N Engl J Med, 348(19), 1885-94, 2003.

Ray, Wayne A, MacDonald, Thomas M, Solomon, Daniel H, Graham, David J, Avorn, Jerry. COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 12(1), 67-70, 2003.

Butler, Javed, Arbogast, Patrick G, BeLue, Rhonda, Daugherty, James, Jain, Manoj K, Ray, Wayne A, Griffin, Marie R. Outpatient adherence to beta-blocker therapy after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol, 40(9), 1589-95, 2002.

Cooper, William O, Griffin, Marie R, Arbogast, Patrick, Hickson, Gerald B, Gautam, Shiva, Ray, Wayne A. Very early exposure to erythromycin and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 156(7), 647-50, 2002.

Cooper, William O, Ray, Wayne A, Griffin, Marie R. Prenatal prescription of macrolide antibiotics and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Obstet Gynecol, 100(1), 101-6, 2002.

Cooper, William O, Staffa, Judy A, Renfrew, J William, Graham, David J, Ray, Wayne A. Oral corticosteroid use among children in TennCare. Ambul Pediatr, 2(5), 375-81, 2002.

Meredith, Sarah, Feldman, Penny, Frey, Dennee, Giammarco, Lisa, Hall, Kathi, Arnold, Kristina, Brown, Nancy J, Ray, Wayne A. Improving medication use in newly admitted home healthcare patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc, 50(9), 1484-91, 2002.

Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Lipid-lowering agents and the risk of hip fracture in a Medicaid population. Inj Prev, 8(4), 276-9, 2002. PMCID:1756571

Ray, Wayne A, Stein, C Michael, Daugherty, James R, Hall, Kathi, Arbogast, Patrick G, Griffin, Marie R. COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease. Lancet, 360(9339), 1071-3, 2002.

Ray, Wayne A, Stein, C Michael, Hall, Kathi, Daugherty, James R, Griffin, Marie R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of serious coronary heart disease: an observational cohort study. Lancet, 359(9301), 118-23, 2002.

Ray, Wayne A, Thapa, Purushottam B, Gideon, Patricia. Misclassification of current benzodiazepine exposure by use of a single baseline measurement and its effects upon studies of injuries. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 11(8), 663-9, 2002.

Smalley, Walter, Stein, C Michael, Arbogast, Patrick G, Eisen, Glenn, Ray, Wayne A, Griffin, Marie. Underutilization of gastroprotective measures in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arthritis Rheum, 46(8), 2195-200, 2002.

Holzman, M D, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A, Smalley, W E. Use of healthcare resources among medically and surgically treated patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study. J Am Coll Surg, 192(1), 17-24, 2001.

Meredith, S, Feldman, P H, Frey, D, Hall, K, Arnold, K, Brown, N J, Ray, W A. Possible medication errors in home healthcare patients. J Am Geriatr Soc, 49(6), 719-24, 2001.

Ray, W A, Meredith, S, Thapa, P B, Meador, K G, Hall, K, Murray, K T. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 58(12), 1161-7, 2001.

Ray, W A, Stein, C M, Byrd, V, Shorr, R, Pichert, J W, Gideon, P, Arnold, K, Brandt, K D, Pincus, T, Griffin, M R. Educational program for physicians to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among community-dwelling elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care, 39(5), 425-35, 2001.

Stein, C M, Griffin, M R, Taylor, J A, Pichert, J W, Brandt, K D, Ray, W A. Educational program for nursing home physicians and staff to reduce use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Med Care, 39(5), 436-45, 2001.

Griffin, M R, Yared, A, Ray, W A. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acute renal failure in elderly persons. Am J Epidemiol, 151(5), 488-96, 2000.

Ray, W A, Thapa, P B, Gideon, P. Benzodiazepines and the risk of falls in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc, 48(6), 682-5, 2000.

Smalley, W, Shatin, D, Wysowski, D K, Gurwitz, J, Andrade, S E, Goodman, M, Chan, K A, Platt, R, Schech, S D, Ray, W A. Contraindicated use of cisapride: impact of food and drug administration regulatory action. JAMA, 284(23), 3036-9, 2000.

Cooper, W O, Hickson, G B, Gray, C L, Ray, W A. Changes in continuity of enrollment among high-risk children following implementation of TennCare. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 153(11), 1145-9, 1999.

Cooper, W O, Hickson, G B, Mitchel, E F, Edwards, K M, Thapa, P B, Ray, W A. Early childhood mortality from community-acquired infections. Am J Epidemiol, 150(5), 517-27, 1999.

Cooper, W O, Hickson, G B, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Comparison of perinatal outcomes among TennCare managed care organizations. Pediatrics, 104(3 Pt 1), 525-9, 1999.

Scholer, S J, Hickson, G B, Ray, W A. Sociodemographic factors identify US infants at high risk of injury mortality. Pediatrics, 103(6 Pt 1), 1183-8, 1999.

Smalley, W, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J, Griffin, M R. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and incidence of colorectal cancer: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med, 159(2), 161-6, 1999.

Brown, N J, Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Meredith, S, Beers, M H, Marren, J, Robles, M, Stergachis, A, Wood, A J, Avorn, J. A model for improving medication use in home health care patients. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash), 38(6), 696-702, 1998.

Ray, W A, Gigante, J, Mitchel, E F, Hickson, G B. Perinatal outcomes following implementation of TennCare. JAMA, 279(4), 314-6, 1998.

Smalley, W E, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. No association between calcium channel blocker use and confirmed bleeding peptic ulcer disease. Am J Epidemiol, 148(4), 350-4, 1998.

Thapa, P B, Gideon, P, Cost, T W, Milam, A B, Ray, W A. Antidepressants and the risk of falls among nursing home residents. N Engl J Med, 339(13), 875-82, 1998.

Thapa, P B, Whitlock, J A, Brockman Worrell, K G, Gideon, P, Mitchel, E F, Roberson, P, Pais, R, Ray, W A. Prenatal exposure to metronidazole and risk of childhood cancer: a retrospective cohort study of children younger than 5 years. Cancer, 83(7), 1461-8, 1998.

Meador, K G, Taylor, J A, Thapa, P B, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Predictors of antipsychotic withdrawal or dose reduction in a randomized controlled trial of provider education. J Am Geriatr Soc, 45(2), 207-10, 1997.

Ray WA. Safety and mobility of the older driver: A research challenge. JAMA, 278, 66-67, 1997.

Ray, W A. Policy and program analysis using administrative databases. Ann Intern Med, 127(8 Pt 2), 712-8, 1997.

Ray, W A, Mitchel, E F, Piper, J M. Effect of Medicaid expansions on preterm birth. Am J Prev Med, 13(4), 292-7, 1997.

Ray, W A, Taylor, J A, Meador, K G, Thapa, P B, Brown, A K, Kajihara, H K, Davis, C, Gideon, P, Griffin, M R. A randomized trial of a consultation service to reduce falls in nursing homes. JAMA, 278(7), 557-62, 1997.

Scholer, S J, Hickson, G B, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Persistently increased injury mortality rates in high-risk young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 151(12), 1216-9, 1997.

Scholer, S J, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Predictors of injury mortality in early childhood. Pediatrics, 100(3 Pt 1), 342-7, 1997.

Shorr, R I, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Incidence and risk factors for serious hypoglycemia in older persons using insulin or sulfonylureas. Arch Intern Med, 157(15), 1681-6, 1997.

Brown, N J, Ray, W A, Snowden, M, Griffin, M R. Black Americans have an increased rate of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 60(1), 8-13, 1996.

Piper, J M, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Obstetric care provider density and delayed onset of prenatal care. Med Care, 34(10), 1066-70, 1996.

Piper, J M, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Evaluation of a program for prenatal care case management. Fam Plann Perspect, 28(2), 65-8, 1996.

Ray, W A. Clinical studies of drug effects in humans. Clin Chem, 42(8 Pt 2), 1306-11, 1996.

Shorr, R I, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Individual sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc, 44(7), 751-5, 1996.

Smalley, W E, Griffin, M R, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Excess costs from gastrointestinal disease associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Gen Intern Med, 11(8), 461-9, 1996.

Thapa, P B, Brockman, K G, Gideon, P, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Injurious falls in nonambulatory nursing home residents: a comparative study of circumstances, incidence, and risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc, 44(3), 273-8, 1996.

Thapa, P B, Gideon, P, Brockman, K G, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Clinical and biomechanical measures of balance as fall predictors in ambulatory nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 51(5), M239-46, 1996.

Griffin, M R, Brandt, K D, Liang, M H, Pincus, T, Ray, W A. Practical management of osteoarthritis. Integration of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures. Arch Fam Med, 4(12), 1049-55, 1995.

Smalley, W E, Griffin, M R, Fought, R L, Sullivan, L, Ray, W A. Effect of a prior-authorization requirement on the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by Medicaid patients. N Engl J Med, 332(24), 1612-7, 1995.

Smalley, W E, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Am J Epidemiol, 141(6), 539-45, 1995.

Thapa, P B, Gideon, P, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Psychotropic drugs and risk of recurrent falls in ambulatory nursing home residents. Am J Epidemiol, 142(2), 202-11, 1995.

Piper, J M, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Presumptive eligibility for pregnant Medicaid enrollees: its effects on prenatal care and perinatal outcome. Am J Public Health, 84(10), 1626-30, 1994. PMCID:1615092

Piper, J M, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Expanded Medicaid coverage for pregnant women to 100 percent of the federal poverty level. Am J Prev Med, 10(2), 97-102, 1994.

Shorr, R I, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Changes in antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes during implementation of the OBRA-87 regulations. JAMA, 271(5), 358-62, 1994.

Thapa, P B, Gideon, P, Fought, R L, Kormicki, M, Ray, W A. Comparison of clinical and biomechanical measures of balance and mobility in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc, 42(5), 493-500, 1994.

Thapa, P B, Meador, K G, Gideon, P, Fought, R L, Ray, W A. Effects of antipsychotic withdrawal in elderly nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc, 42(3), 280-6, 1994.

Piper, J M, Mitchel, E F, Ray, W A. Prenatal use of metronidazole and birth defects: no association. Obstet Gynecol, 82(3), 348-52, 1993.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Avorn, J. Evaluating drugs after their approval for clinical use. N Engl J Med, 329(27), 2029-32, 1993.

Ray, W A, Taylor, J A, Meador, K G, Lichtenstein, M J, Griffin, M R, Fought, R, Adams, M L, Blazer, D G. Reducing antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes. A controlled trial of provider education. Arch Intern Med, 153(6), 713-21, 1993.

Ray, W A, Thapa, P B, Shorr, R I. Medications and the older driver. Clin Geriatr Med, 9(2), 413-38, 1993.

Shorr, R I, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Reserpine reconsidered: no association with serious peptic ulcer disease. J Gen Intern Med, 8(9), 510-2, 1993.

Shorr, R I, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Concurrent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral anticoagulants places elderly persons at high risk for hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease. Arch Intern Med, 153(14), 1665-70, 1993.

Thapa, P B, Ray, W A. Can thiazide diuretics be recommended routinely to reduce hip fracture risk. Drugs Aging, 3(2), 99-105, 1993.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Fought, R L, Melton, L J. Black-white differences in fracture rates. Am J Epidemiol, 136(11), 1378-85, 1992.

Griffin, M R, Taylor, J A, Daugherty, J R, Ray, W A. No increased risk for invasive bacterial infection found following diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization. Pediatrics, 89(4 Pt 1), 640-2, 1992.

Piper, J M, Ray, W A, Rosa, F W. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Obstet Gynecol, 80(3 Pt 1), 429-32, 1992.

Ray, W A. Psychotropic drugs and injuries among the elderly: a review. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 12(6), 386-96, 1992.

Ray, W A, Fought, R L, Decker, M D. Psychoactive drugs and the risk of injurious motor vehicle crashes in elderly drivers. Am J Epidemiol, 136(7), 873-83, 1992.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Fought, R L, Adams, M L. Identification of fractures from computerized Medicare files. J Clin Epidemiol, 45(7), 703-14, 1992.

Ray, W A, Gurwitz, J, Decker, M D, Kennedy, D L. Medications and the safety of the older driver: is there a basis for concern. Hum Factors, 34(1), 33-47; discussion 49-51, 1992.

Ray, W A, Taylor, J A, Lichtenstein, M J, Meador, K G. The Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. J Gerontol, 47(1), M9-16, 1992.

Shorr, R I, Griffin, M R, Daugherty, J R, Ray, W A. Opioid analgesics and the risk of hip fracture in the elderly: codeine and propoxyphene. J Gerontol, 47(4), M111-5, 1992.

Griffin, M R, Piper, J M, Daugherty, J R, Snowden, M, Ray, W A. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med, 114(4), 257-63, 1991.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Mortimer, E A, Fenichel, G M, Schaffner, W. Risk of seizures after measles-mumps-rubella immunization. Pediatrics, 88(5), 881-5, 1991.

O'Day, D M, Ray, W A, Head, W S, Robinson, R D, Williams, T E. Influence of corticosteroid on experimentally induced keratomycosis. Arch Ophthalmol, 109(11), 1601-4, 1991.

O'Day, D M, Ray, W A, Robinson, R D, Head, W S, Williams, T E. Differences in response in vivo to amphotericin B among Candida albicans strains. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 32(5), 1569-72, 1991.

Piper, J M, Ray, W A, Daugherty, J R, Griffin, M R. Corticosteroid use and peptic ulcer disease: role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ann Intern Med, 114(9), 735-40, 1991.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Malcolm, E. Cyclic antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture. Arch Intern Med, 151(4), 754-6, 1991.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Mortimer, E A, Fenichel, G M, Schaffner, W. Risk of seizures and encephalopathy after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. JAMA, 263(12), 1641-5, 1990.

Piper, J M, Ray, W A, Griffin, M R. Effects of Medicaid eligibility expansion on prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Tennessee. JAMA, 264(17), 2219-23, 1990.

Piper, J M, Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Fought, R, Daughtery, J R, Mitchel, E. Methodological issues in evaluating expanded Medicaid coverage for pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol, 132(3), 561-71, 1990.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Baugh, D K. Mortality following hip fracture before and after implementation of the prospective payment system. Arch Intern Med, 150(10), 2109-14, 1990.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Shorr, R I. Adverse drug reactions and the elderly. Health Aff (Millwood), 9(3), 114-22, 1990.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, West, R, Strand, L, Melton, L J. Incidence of hip fracture in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1976-1985. Am J Epidemiol, 131(3), 502-9, 1990.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R. Use of Medicaid data for pharmacoepidemiology. Am J Epidemiol, 129(4), 837-49, 1989.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Downey, W. Benzodiazepines of long and short elimination half-life and the risk of hip fracture. JAMA, 262(23), 3303-7, 1989.

Ray, W A, Griffin, M R, Downey, W, Melton, L J. Long-term use of thiazide diuretics and risk of hip fracture. Lancet, 1(8640), 687-90, 1989.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Fought, R L, Foster, M A, Hays, A, Schaffner, W. Monitoring the safety of childhood immunizations: methods of linking and augmenting computerized data bases for epidemiologic studies. Am J Prev Med, 4(2 Suppl), 5-13, 1988.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Livengood, J R, Schaffner, W. Risk of sudden infant death syndrome after immunization with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. N Engl J Med, 319(10), 618-23, 1988.

Griffin, M R, Ray, W A, Schaffner, W. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and death from peptic ulcer in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med, 109(5), 359-63, 1988.

Branch, R A, Jackson, E K, Jacqz, E, Stein, R, Ray, W A, Ohnhaus, E E, Meusers, P, Heidemann, H. Amphotericin-B nephrotoxicity in humans decreased by sodium supplements with coadministration of ticarcillin or intravenous saline. Klin Wochenschr, 65(11), 500-6, 1987.

Kaisary, A, Smith, P, Jaczq, E, McAllister, C B, Wilkinson, G R, Ray, W A, Branch, R A. Genetic predisposition to bladder cancer: ability to hydroxylate debrisoquine and mephenytoin as risk factors. Cancer Res, 47(20), 5488-93, 1987.

Ray, W A, Blazer, D G, Schaffner, W, Federspiel, C F. Reducing antipsychotic drug prescribing for nursing home patients: a controlled trial of the effect of an educational visit. Am J Public Health, 77(11), 1448-50, 1987. PMCID:1647107

Ray, W A, Federspiel, C F, Baugh, D K, Dodds, S. Interstate variation in elderly Medicaid nursing home populations. Comparisons of resident characteristics and medical care utilization. Med Care, 25(8), 738-52, 1987.


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Updated Date
05/22/2007



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