Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Guengerich, F. Peter , Ph.D.
Professor of Biochemistry
Tadashi Inagami, Ph.D. Chair in Biochemistry

Lab Url:

Phone Number: 615-322-2261


Guengerich, F.'s picture

Office Address   Mailing Address

638B Robinson Research Building

638B RRB 0146

Research Keywords
Biochemistry, Drug metabolism, Mass spectrometry, Mutation, Pharmacology, Polymorphism, Spectroscopy, Toxicology

Research Specialty
Chemistry and enzymology of bioactivation and detoxication of foreign compounds

Research Description
Mechanisms of activation and detoxication of chemical carcinogens and toxicants; characterization of enzymes involved in these processes

Major areas of interest include the metabolism of carcinogens and drugs by cytochrome P450 enzymes, the bioactivation of halogenated hydrocarbons, and polymerase interactions with carcinogen-modified DNA. Several approaches are being used to understand the catalytic mechanisms of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes, including site-directed and random mutagenesis, kinetic analysis, isotope effects, and substrate-activity relationships. Work on halogenated hydrocarbons is done with trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, and methylene dihalides and the adducts they form. Glutathione transferase-mediated bioactivation is under investigation, as well as in the case of some bifunctional electrophiles. Studies on the polymerases involve the use of modified oligonucleotides, steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics, and physical approaches such as x-ray diffraction. A major goal is to understand how carcinogen-DNA adducts cause polymerases to stall and misincorporate bases. See website at

Dostalek, M, Hardy, KD, Milne, GL, Morrow, JD, Chen, C, Gonzalez, FJ, Gu, J, Ding, X, Johnson, DA, Johnson, JA, Martin, MV, Guengerich, FP. Development of oxidative stress by cytochrome P450 induction in rodents is selective for barbiturates and related to loss of pyridine nucleotide-dependent protective systems. J Biol Chem, 283(25), 17147-57, 2008. PMCID:2427356

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome p450 and chemical toxicology. Chem Res Toxicol, 21(1), 70-83, 2008.

Isin, EM, Sohl, CD, Eoff, RL, Guengerich, FP. Cooperativity of cytochrome P450 1A2: interactions of 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide and 1-isopropoxy-4-nitrobenzene. Arch Biochem Biophys, 473(1), 69-75, 2008.

Loecken, EM, Guengerich, FP. Reactions of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase sulfhydryl groups with bis-electrophiles produce DNA-protein cross-links but not mutations. Chem Res Toxicol, 21(2), 453-8, 2008.

Sohl, CD, Isin, EM, Eoff, RL, Marsch, GA, Stec, DF, Guengerich, FP. Cooperativity in oxidation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A2: highly cooperative pyrene hydroxylation and multiphasic kinetics of ligand binding. J Biol Chem, 283(11), 7293-308, 2008.

Stark, K, Dostalek, M, Guengerich, FP. Expression and purification of orphan cytochrome P450 4X1 and oxidation of anandamide. FEBS J, 275(14), 3706-17, 2008.

Stark, K, Wu, ZL, Bartleson, CJ, Guengerich, FP. mRNA Distribution and Heterologous Expression of Orphan Cytochrome P450 20A1. Drug Metab Dispos, , , 2008.

Chowdhury, G, Guengerich, FP. Direct Detection and Mapping of Sites of Base Modification in DNA Fragments by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, , , 2007.

Chun, YJ, Shimada, T, Sanchez-Ponce, R, Martin, MV, Lei, L, Zhao, B, Kelly, SL, Waterman, MR, Lamb, DC, Guengerich, FP. Electron transport pathway for a Streptomyces cytochrome P450: cytochrome P450 105D5-catalyzed fatty acid hydroxylation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Biol Chem, 282(24), 17486-500, 2007.

Dostalek, M, Brooks, JD, Hardy, KD, Milne, GL, Moore, MM, Sharma, S, Morrow, JD, Guengerich, FP. In vivo oxidative damage in rats is associated with barbiturate response but not other cytochrome P450 inducers. Mol Pharmacol, 72(6), 1419-24, 2007.

Eoff, RL, Angel, KC, Egli, M, Guengerich, FP. Molecular basis of selectivity of nucleoside triphosphate incorporation opposite O6-benzylguanine by sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase DPO4 steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics and X-ray crystallography of correct and incorrect pairing. J Biol Chem, , , 2007.

Eoff, RL, Irimia, A, Angel, KC, Egli, M, Guengerich, FP. Hydrogen bonding of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine with a charged residue in the little finger domain determines miscoding events in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. J Biol Chem, 282(27), 19831-43, 2007.

Eoff, RL, Irimia, A, Egli, M, Guengerich, FP. Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4 is partially inhibited by "wobble" pairing between O6-methylguanine and cytosine, but accurate bypass is preferred. J Biol Chem, 282(2), 1456-67, 2007.

Guengerich, FP. Mechanisms of cytochrome P450 substrate oxidation: MiniReview. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 21(4), 163-8, 2007.

Guengerich, FP, Macdonald, JS. Applying mechanisms of chemical toxicity to predict drug safety. Chem Res Toxicol, 20(3), 344-69, 2007.

Irimia, A, Eoff, RL, Pallan, PS, Guengerich, FP, Egli, M. Structure and activity of Y-class DNA polymerase DPO4 from sulfolobus solfataricus with templates containing the hydrophobic thymine analog 2,4-difluorotoluene. J Biol Chem, , , 2007.

Isin, EM, Guengerich, FP. Complex reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1770(3), 314-29, 2007.

Isin, EM, Guengerich, FP. Multiple sequential steps involved in the binding of inhibitors to cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem, 282(9), 6863-74, 2007.

Sanchez-Ponce, R, Guengerich, FP. Untargeted analysis of mass spectrometry data for elucidation of metabolites and function of enzymes. Anal Chem, 79(9), 3355-62, 2007.

Shanmugam, G, Goodenough, AK, Kozekov, ID, Guengerich, FP, Rizzo, CJ, Stone, MP. Structure of the 1,N2-etheno-2''-deoxyguanosine adduct in duplex DNA at pH 8.6. Chem Res Toxicol, 20(11), 1601-11, 2007. PMCID:2546360

Shimada, T, Murayama, N, Okada, K, Funae, Y, Yamazaki, H, Guengerich, FP. Different Mechanisms for Inhibition of Human Cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 by Polycyclic Aromatic Inhibitors. Chem Res Toxicol, 20(3), 489-496, 2007.

Stark, K, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of orphan human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Rev, 39(2-3), 627-37, 2007.

Watanabe, K, Liberman, RG, Skipper, PL, Tannenbaum, SR, Guengerich, FP. Analysis of DNA Adducts Formed in Vivo in Rats and Mice from 1,2-Dibromoethane, 1,2-Dichloroethane, Dibromomethane, and Dichloromethane Using HPLC/Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Relevance to Risk Estimates. Chem Res Toxicol, 20(11), 1594-600, 2007.

Choi, JY, Angel, KC, Guengerich, FP. Translesion synthesis across bulky N2-alkyl guanine DNA adducts by human DNA polymerase kappa. J Biol Chem, 281(30), 21062-72, 2006.

Choi, JY, Chowdhury, G, Zang, H, Angel, KC, Vu, CC, Peterson, LA, Guengerich, FP. Translesion synthesis across O6-alkylguanine DNA adducts by recombinant human DNA polymerases. J Biol Chem, 281(50), 38244-56, 2006.

Choi, JY, Guengerich, FP. Kinetic evidence for inefficient and error-prone bypass across bulky N2-guanine DNA adducts by human DNA polymerase iota. J Biol Chem, 281(18), 12315-24, 2006.

Choi, JY, Stover, JS, Angel, KC, Chowdhury, G, Rizzo, CJ, Guengerich, FP. Biochemical basis of genotoxicity of heterocyclic arylamine food mutagens: Human DNA polymerase eta selectively produces a two-base deletion in copying the N2-guanyl adduct of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline but not the C8 adduct at the NarI G3 site. J Biol Chem, 281(35), 25297-306, 2006.

Choi, JY, Zang, H, Angel, KC, Kozekov, ID, Goodenough, AK, Rizzo, CJ, Guengerich, FP. Translesion synthesis across 1,N2-ethenoguanine by human DNA polymerases. Chem Res Toxicol, 19(6), 879-86, 2006.

Chun, YJ, Shimada, T, Waterman, MR, Guengerich, FP. Understanding electron transport systems of Streptomyces cytochrome P450. Biochem Soc Trans, 34(Pt 6), 1183-5, 2006.

Guengerich, FP. A malleable catalyst dominates the metabolism of drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103(37), 13565-6, 2006. PMCID:1564253

Guengerich, FP. Interactions of carcinogen-bound DNA with individual DNA polymerases. Chem Rev, 106(2), 420-52, 2006.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450s and other enzymes in drug metabolism and toxicity. AAPS J, 8(1), E101-11, 2006.

Guengerich, FP, Martin, MV. Purification of cytochromes P450: products of bacterial recombinant expression systems. Methods Mol Biol, 320, 31-7, 2006.

Irimia, A, Zang, H, Loukachevitch, LV, Eoff, RL, Guengerich, FP, Egli, M. Calcium is a cofactor of polymerization but inhibits pyrophosphorolysis by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Biochemistry, 45(19), 5949-56, 2006.

Isin, EM, Guengerich, FP. Kinetics and thermodynamics of ligand binding by cytochrome P450 3A4. J Biol Chem, , , 2006.

Lamb, DC, Guengerich, FP, Kelly, SL, Waterman, MR. Exploiting Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) P450s as a model for application in drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 2(1), 27-40, 2006.

Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-, 1A2-, and 1B1-Mediated Activation of Procarcinogens to Genotoxic Metabolites by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Chem Res Toxicol, 19(2), 288-94, 2006.

Stover, JS, Chowdhury, G, Zang, H, Guengerich, FP, Rizzo, CJ. Translesion synthesis past the C8- and N2-deoxyguanosine adducts of the dietary mutagen 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in the NarI recognition sequence by prokaryotic DNA polymerases. Chem Res Toxicol, 19(11), 1506-17, 2006.

Watanabe, K, Guengerich, FP. Limited reactivity of formyl chloride with glutathione and relevance to metabolism and toxicity of dichloromethane. Chem Res Toxicol, 19(8), 1091-6, 2006.

Wu, ZL, Bartleson, CJ, Ham, AJ, Guengerich, FP. Heterologous expression, purification, and properties of human cytochrome P450 27C1. Arch Biochem Biophys, 445(1), 138-46, 2006.

Wu, ZL, Sohl, CD, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Recombinant enzymes overexpressed in bacteria show broad catalytic specificity of human cytochrome P450 2W1 and limited activity of human cytochrome P450 2S1. Mol Pharmacol, 69(6), 2007-14, 2006.

Zang, H, Chowdhury, G, Angel, KC, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Translesion synthesis across polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxide adducts of deoxyadenosine by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Chem Res Toxicol, 19(6), 859-67, 2006.

Zang, H, Irimia, A, Choi, JY, Angel, KC, Loukachevitch, LV, Egli, M, Guengerich, FP. Efficient and high fidelity incorporation of dCTP opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. J Biol Chem, 281(4), 2358-72, 2006.

Choi, JY, Guengerich, FP. Adduct size limits efficient and error-free bypass across bulky N2-guanine DNA lesions by human DNA polymerase eta. J Mol Biol, 352(1), 72-90, 2005.

Goodenough, AK, Kozekov, ID, Zang, H, Choi, JY, Guengerich, FP, Harris, TM, Rizzo, CJ. Site specific synthesis and polymerase bypass of oligonucleotides containing a 6-hydroxy-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-9H-imidazo[1,2-a]purin-9-one base, an intermediate in the formation of 1,N2-etheno-2''-deoxyguanosine. Chem Res Toxicol, 18(11), 1701-14, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. Reduction of cytochrome b5 by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys, 440(2), 204-11, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. Life and times in biochemical toxicology. Int J Toxicol, 24(1), 5-21, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. How I became a biochemist. IUBMB Life, 57(10), 705-7, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. Generation of reactive intermediates. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 19(3), 173-4, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. Activation of alkyl halides by glutathione transferases. Methods Enzymol, 401, 342-53, 2005.

Guengerich, FP. Principles of covalent binding of reactive metabolites and examples of activation of bis-electrophiles by conjugation. Arch Biochem Biophys, 433(2), 369-78, 2005.

Guengerich, FP, Wu, ZL, Bartleson, CJ. Function of human cytochrome P450s: characterization of the orphans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 338(1), 465-9, 2005.

Kim, D, Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 activation of arylamines and heterocyclic amines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 45, 27-49, 2005.

Kim, D, Wu, ZL, Guengerich, FP. Analysis of coumarin 7-hydroxylation activity of cytochrome P450 2A6 using random mutagenesis. J Biol Chem, 280(48), 40319-27, 2005.

Krauser, JA, Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation stereochemistry, kinetic deuterium isotope effects, and rate-limiting steps. J Biol Chem, 280(20), 19496-506, 2005.

Liebler, DC, Guengerich, FP. Elucidating mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 4(5), 410-20, 2005.

Shimada, T, Mernaugh, RL, Guengerich, FP. Interactions of mammalian cytochrome P450, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b(5) enzymes. Arch Biochem Biophys, 435(1), 207-16, 2005.

VanderVeen, LA, Druckova, A, Riggins, JN, Sorrells, JL, Guengerich, FP, Marnett, LJ. Differential DNA recognition and cleavage by EcoRI dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between the two forms of the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adduct. Biochemistry, 44(13), 5024-33, 2005.

V??lez-Cruz, R, Riggins, JN, Daniels, JS, Cai, H, Guengerich, FP, Marnett, LJ, Osheroff, N. Exocyclic DNA lesions stimulate DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase II alpha in vitro and in cultured cells. Biochemistry, 44(10), 3972-81, 2005.

Wu, ZL, Aryal, P, Lozach, O, Meijer, L, Guengerich, FP. Biosynthesis of new indigoid inhibitors of protein kinases using recombinant cytochrome P450 2A6. Chem Biodivers, 2(1), 51-65, 2005.

Wu, ZL, Podust, LM, Guengerich, FP. Expansion of substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 2A6 by random and site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem, 280(49), 41090-100, 2005.

Yun, CH, Kim, KH, Calcutt, MW, Guengerich, FP. Kinetic analysis of oxidation of coumarins by human cytochrome P450 2A6. J Biol Chem, , , 2005.

Zang, H, Fang, Q, Pegg, AE, Guengerich, FP. Kinetic analysis of steps in the repair of damaged DNA by human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. J Biol Chem, 280(35), 30873-81, 2005.

Zang, H, Goodenough, AK, Choi, JY, Irimia, A, Loukachevitch, LV, Kozekov, ID, Angel, KC, Rizzo, CJ, Egli, M, Guengerich, FP. DNA adduct bypass polymerization by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4: analysis and crystal structures of multiple base pair substitution and frameshift products with the adduct 1,N2-ethenoguanine. J Biol Chem, 280(33), 29750-64, 2005.

Zang, H, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Kinetics of Nucleotide Incorporation Opposite Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-DNA Adducts by Processive Bacteriophage T7 DNA Polymerase. Chem Res Toxicol, 18(2), 389-400, 2005.

Zang, H, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Kinetics of nucleotide incorporation opposite DNA bulky guanine N2 adducts by processive bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase (exonuclease-) and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Biol Chem, 280(2), 1165-78, 2005.

Zhao, B, Guengerich, FP, Bellamine, A, Lamb, DC, Izumikawa, M, Lei, L, Podust, LM, Sundaramoorthy, M, Kalaitzis, JA, Reddy, LM, Kelly, SL, Moore, BS, Stec, D, Voehler, M, Falck, JR, Shimada, T, Waterman, MR. Binding of two flaviolin substrate molecules, oxidative coupling, and crystal structure of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) cytochrome P450 158A2. J Biol Chem, 280(12), 11599-607, 2005.

Zhao, B, Guengerich, FP, Voehler, M, Waterman, MR. Role of active site water molecules and substrate hydroxyl groups in oxygen activation by cytochrome P450 158A2: a new mechanism of proton transfer. J Biol Chem, 280(51), 42188-97, 2005.

Choi, JY, Guengerich, FP. Analysis of the effect of bulk at N2-alkylguanine DNA adducts on catalytic efficiency and fidelity of the processive DNA polymerases bacteriophage T7 exonuclease- and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Biol Chem, 279(18), 19217-29, 2004.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450: what have we learned and what are the future issues. Drug Metab Rev, 36(2), 159-97, 2004.

Guengerich, FP. Where is toxicology headed in the future. Drug Metab Rev, 36(3-4), 475-86, 2004.

Guengerich, FP, Krauser, JA, Johnson, WW. Rate-limiting steps in oxidations catalyzed by rabbit cytochrome P450 1A2. Biochemistry, 43(33), 10775-88, 2004.

Guengerich, FP, Sorrells, JL, Schmitt, S, Krauser, JA, Aryal, P, Meijer, L. Generation of new protein kinase inhibitors utilizing cytochrome p450 mutant enzymes for indigoid synthesis. J Med Chem, 47(12), 3236-41, 2004.

Kim, D, Guengerich, FP. Selection of human cytochrome P450 1A2 mutants with enhanced catalytic activity for heterocyclic amine N-hydroxylation. Biochemistry, 43(4), 981-8, 2004.

Kim, D, Guengerich, FP. Enhancement of 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation activity of human cytochrome P450 1A2 by molecular breeding. Arch Biochem Biophys, 432(1), 102-8, 2004.

Kim, D, Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 Activation of Arylamines and Heterocyclic Amines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, , , 2004.

Kim, D, Kadlubar, FF, Teitel, CH, Guengerich, FP. Formation and reduction of aryl and heterocyclic nitroso compounds and significance in the flux of hydroxylamines. Chem Res Toxicol, 17(4), 529-36, 2004.

Krauser, JA, Voehler, M, Tseng, LH, Schefer, AB, Godejohann, M, Guengerich, FP. Testosterone 1 beta-hydroxylation by human cytochrome P450 3A4. Eur J Biochem, 271(19), 3962-9, 2004.

Marsch, GA, Botta, S, Martin, MV, McCormick, WA, Guengerich, FP. Formation and mass spectrometric analysis of DNA and nucleoside adducts by S-(1-acetoxymethyl)glutathione and by glutathione S-transferase-mediated activation of dihalomethanes. Chem Res Toxicol, 17(1), 45-54, 2004.

Valadez, JG, Guengerich, FP. S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione-generated p53 mutation spectra are influenced by differential repair rates more than sites of initial dna damage. J Biol Chem, 279(14), 13435-46, 2004.

Valadez, JG, Liu, L, Loktionova, NA, Pegg, AE, Guengerich, FP. Activation of bis-electrophiles to mutagenic conjugates by human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Chem Res Toxicol, 17(7), 972-82, 2004.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochromes P450, drugs, and diseases. Mol Interv, 3(4), 194-204, 2003.

Guengerich, FP. Activation of dihaloalkanes by thiol-dependent mechanisms. J Biochem Mol Biol, 36(1), 20-7, 2003.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 oxidations in the generation of reactive electrophiles: epoxidation and related reactions. Arch Biochem Biophys, 409(1), 59-71, 2003.

Guengerich, FP, Fang, Q, Liu, L, Hachey, DL, Pegg, AE. O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase: low pKa and high reactivity of cysteine 145. Biochemistry, 42(37), 10965-70, 2003.

Guengerich, FP, Hanna, IH, Martin, MV, Gillam, EM. Role of glutamic acid 216 in cytochrome P450 2D6 substrate binding and catalysis. Biochemistry, 42(5), 1245-53, 2003.

Guengerich, FP, McCormick, WA, Wheeler, JB. Analysis of the kinetic mechanism of haloalkane conjugation by mammalian theta-class glutathione transferases. Chem Res Toxicol, 16(11), 1493-9, 2003.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 enzymes in the generation of commercial products. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 1(5), 359-66, 2002.

Guengerich, FP. Update information on human P450s. Drug Metab Rev, 34(1-2), 7-15, 2002.

Guengerich, FP. N-hydroxyarylamines. Drug Metab Rev, 34(3), 607-23, 2002.

Guengerich, FP, Arneson, KO, Williams, KM, Deng, Z, Harris, TM. Reaction of aflatoxin B(1) oxidation products with lysine. Chem Res Toxicol, 15(6), 780-92, 2002.

Guengerich, FP, Miller, GP, Hanna, IH, Martin, MV, L??ger, S, Black, C, Chauret, N, Silva, JM, Trimble, LA, Yergey, JA, Nicoll-Griffith, DA. Diversity in the oxidation of substrates by cytochrome P450 2D6: lack of an obligatory role of aspartate 301-substrate electrostatic bonding. Biochemistry, 41(36), 11025-34, 2002.

Guengerich, FP, Miller, GP, Hanna, IH, Sato, H, Martin, MV. Oxidation of methoxyphenethylamines by cytochrome P450 2D6. Analysis of rate-limiting steps. J Biol Chem, 277(37), 33711-9, 2002.

Guengerich, FP, Voehler, M, Williams, KM, Deng, Z, Harris, TM. Structure of the aflatoxin B(1) dialdehyde adduct formed from reaction with methylamine. Chem Res Toxicol, 15(6), 793-8, 2002.

Guengerich, FP, Wheeler, JB, Chun, YJ, Kim, D, Shimada, T, Aryal, P, Oda, Y, Gillam, EM. Use of heterologously-expressed cytochrome P450 and glutathione transferase enzymes in toxicity assays. Toxicology, 181-182, 261-4, 2002.

Kim, D, Guengerich, FP. Random mutagenesis by whole-plasmid PCR amplification. Methods Mol Biol, 192, 241-5, 2002.

Woodside, AM, Guengerich, FP. Misincorporation and stalling at O(6)-methylguanine and O(6)-benzylguanine: evidence for inactive polymerase complexes. Biochemistry, 41(3), 1039-50, 2002.

Woodside, AM, Guengerich, FP. Effect of the O6 substituent on misincorporation kinetics catalyzed by DNA polymerases at O(6)-methylguanine and O(6)-benzylguanine. Biochemistry, 41(3), 1027-38, 2002.

Yoshioka, T, Krauser, JA, Guengerich, FP. Microsomal oxidation of tribromoethylene and reactions of tribromoethylene oxide. Chem Res Toxicol, 15(11), 1414-20, 2002.

Yoshioka, T, Krauser, JA, Guengerich, FP. Tetrachloroethylene oxide: hydrolytic products and reactions with phosphate and lysine. Chem Res Toxicol, 15(8), 1096-105, 2002.

Cai, H, Guengerich, FP. Reaction of trichloroethylene oxide with proteins and dna: instability of adducts and modulation of functions. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(1), 54-61, 2001.

Cai, H, Guengerich, FP. Reaction of trichloroethylene and trichloroethylene oxide with cytochrome P450 enzymes: inactivation and sites of modification. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(4), 451-8, 2001.

Einolf, HJ, Guengerich, FP. Fidelity of nucleotide insertion at 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine by mammalian DNA polymerase delta. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis. J Biol Chem, 276(6), 3764-71, 2001.

Guengerich, FP. Uncommon P450-catalyzed reactions. Curr Drug Metab, 2(2), 93-115, 2001.

Guengerich, FP. Functional genomics and proteomics applied to the study of nutritional metabolism. Nutr Rev, 59(8 Pt 1), 259-63, 2001.

Guengerich, FP. Forging the links between metabolism and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res, 488(3), 195-209, 2001.

Guengerich, FP. Common and uncommon cytochrome P450 reactions related to metabolism and chemical toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(6), 611-50, 2001.

Guengerich, FP, Cai, H, Johnson, WW, Parikh, A. Reactive intermediates in biological systems: what have we learned and where are we going. Adv Exp Med Biol, 500, 639-50, 2001.

Guengerich, FP, Cai, H, McMahon, M, Hayes, JD, Sutter, TR, Groopman, JD, Deng, Z, Harris, TM. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 dialdehyde by rat and human aldo-keto reductases. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(6), 727-37, 2001.

Guengerich, FP, Parikh, A, Yun, CH, Kim, D, Nakamura, K, Notley, LM, Gillam, EM. What makes P450s work? Searches for answers with known and new P450s. Drug Metab Rev, 32(3-4), 267-81, 2001.

Hanna, IH, Kim, MS, Guengerich, FP. Heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 2D6 mutants, electron transfer, and catalysis of bufuralol hydroxylation: the role of aspartate 301 in structural integrity. Arch Biochem Biophys, 393(2), 255-61, 2001.

Hanna, IH, Krauser, JA, Cai, H, Kim, MS, Guengerich, FP. Diversity in mechanisms of substrate oxidation by cytochrome P450 2D6. Lack of an allosteric role of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in catalytic regioselectivity. J Biol Chem, 276(43), 39553-61, 2001.

Marsch, GA, Mundkowski, RG, Morris, BJ, Manier, ML, Hartman, MK, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of nucleoside and DNA adducts formed by S-(1-acetoxymethyl)glutathione and implications for dihalomethane-glutathione conjugates. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(5), 600-8, 2001.

Miller, GP, Guengerich, FP. Binding and oxidation of alkyl 4-nitrophenyl ethers by rabbit cytochrome P450 1A2: evidence for two binding sites. Biochemistry, 40(24), 7262-72, 2001.

Miller, GP, Hanna, IH, Nishimura, Y, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of phenethylamine derivatives by cytochrome P450 2D6: the issue of substrate protonation in binding and catalysis. Biochemistry, 40(47), 14215-23, 2001.

Nakamura, K, Hanna, IH, Cai, H, Nishimura, Y, Williams, KM, Guengerich, FP. Coumarin substrates for cytochrome P450 2D6 fluorescence assays. Anal Biochem, 292(2), 280-6, 2001.

Nakamura, K, Martin, MV, Guengerich, FP. Random mutagenesis of human cytochrome p450 2A6 and screening with indole oxidation products. Arch Biochem Biophys, 395(1), 25-31, 2001.

Wheeler, JB, Stourman, NV, Armstrong, RN, Guengerich, FP. Conjugation of haloalkanes by bacterial and mammalian glutathione transferases: mono- and vicinal dihaloethanes. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(8), 1107-17, 2001.

Wheeler, JB, Stourman, NV, Thier, R, Dommermuth, A, Vuilleumier, S, Rose, JA, Armstrong, RN, Guengerich, FP. Conjugation of haloalkanes by bacterial and mammalian glutathione transferases: mono- and dihalomethanes. Chem Res Toxicol, 14(8), 1118-27, 2001.

Yun, CH, Miller, GP, Guengerich, FP. Oxidations of p-alkoxyacylanilides catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 1A2: structure-activity relationships and simulation of rate constants of individual steps in catalysis. Biochemistry, 40(14), 4521-30, 2001.

Cai, H, Guengerich, FP. Acylation of protein lysines by trichloroethylene oxide. Chem Res Toxicol, 13(5), 327-35, 2000.

Einolf, HJ, Guengerich, FP. Kinetic analysis of nucleotide incorporation by mammalian DNA polymerase delta. J Biol Chem, 275(21), 16316-22, 2000.

Guengerich, FP. Metabolism of chemical carcinogens. Carcinogenesis, 21(3), 345-51, 2000.

Hanna, IH, Dawling, S, Roodi, N, Guengerich, FP, Parl, FF. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) pharmacogenetics: association of polymorphisms with functional differences in estrogen hydroxylation activity. Cancer Res, 60(13), 3440-4, 2000.

Hanna, IH, Reed, JR, Guengerich, FP, Hollenberg, PF. Expression of human cytochrome P450 2B6 in Escherichia coli: characterization of catalytic activity and expression levels in human liver. Arch Biochem Biophys, 376(1), 206-16, 2000.

Hosea, NA, Miller, GP, Guengerich, FP. Elucidation of distinct ligand binding sites for cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry, 39(20), 5929-39, 2000.

Plastaras, JP, Guengerich, FP, Nebert, DW, Marnett, LJ. Xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochromes P450 convert prostaglandin endoperoxide to hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid and the mutagen, malondialdehyde. J Biol Chem, 275(16), 11784-90, 2000.

Wandel, C, Kim, RB, Guengerich, FP, Wood, AJ. Mibefradil is a P-glycoprotein substrate and a potent inhibitor of both P-glycoprotein and CYP3A in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos, 28(8), 895-8, 2000.

Yun, CH, Miller, GP, Guengerich, FP. Rate-determining steps in phenacetin oxidations by human cytochrome P450 1A2 and selected mutants. Biochemistry, 39(37), 11319-29, 2000.

Akasaka, S, Guengerich, FP. Mutagenicity of site-specifically located 1,N2-ethenoguanine in Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosomal DNA. Chem Res Toxicol, 12(6), 501-7, 1999.

Bell-Parikh, LC, Guengerich, FP. Kinetics of cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid via acetaldehyde. J Biol Chem, 274(34), 23833-40, 1999.

Furge, LL, Guengerich, FP. Explanation of pre-steady-state kinetics and decreased burst amplitude of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at sites of modified DNA bases with an additional, nonproductive enzyme-DNA-nucleotide complex. Biochemistry, 38(15), 4818-25, 1999.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P-450 3A4: regulation and role in drug metabolism. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 39, 1-17, 1999.

Guengerich, FP. The Vanderbilt University Center in Molecular Toxicology: the first 30 years. Drug Metab Rev, 31(1), 1-11, 1999.

Guengerich, FP, Johnson, WW. Kinetics of hydrolysis and reaction of aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide and relevance to toxicity and detoxication. Drug Metab Rev, 31(1), 141-58, 1999.

Guengerich, FP, Langou?

Guengerich, FP, Mundkowski, RG, Voehler, M, Kadlubar, FF. Formation and reactions of N(7)-aminoguanosine and derivatives. Chem Res Toxicol, 12(10), 906-16, 1999.

Guengerich, FP, Parikh, A, Turesky, RJ, Josephy, PD. Inter-individual differences in the metabolism of environmental toxicants: cytochrome P450 1A2 as a prototype. Mutat Res, 428(1-2), 115-24, 1999.

Parikh, A, Josephy, PD, Guengerich, FP. Selection and characterization of human cytochrome P450 1A2 mutants with altered catalytic properties. Biochemistry, 38(17), 5283-9, 1999.

Einolf, HJ, Schnetz-Boutaud, N, Guengerich, FP. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine triphosphate incorporation and extension by replicative and repair DNA polymerases. Biochemistry, 37(38), 13300-12, 1998.

Furge, LL, Guengerich, FP. Pre-steady-state kinetics of nucleotide insertion following 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine base pair mismatches by bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase exo-. Biochemistry, 37(10), 3567-74, 1998.

Guengerich, FP. The Environmental Genome Project: functional analysis of polymorphisms. Environ Health Perspect, 106(7), 365-8, 1998. PMCID:1533131

Guengerich, FP, Hosea, NA, Martin, MV. Purification of cytochromes P450: products of bacterial recombinant expression systems. Methods Mol Biol, 107, 77-83, 1998.

Guengerich, FP, Hosea, NA, Parikh, A, Bell-Parikh, LC, Johnson, WW, Gillam, EM, Shimada, T. Twenty years of biochemistry of human P450s: purification, expression, mechanism, and relevance to drugs. Drug Metab Dispos, 26(12), 1175-8, 1998.

Guengerich, FP, Johnson, WW, Shimada, T, Ueng, YF, Yamazaki, H, Langou?

Guengerich, FP, Martin, MV. Purification of cytochromes P450. Rat and human hepatic forms. Methods Mol Biol, 107, 35-53, 1998.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T. Activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Mutat Res, 400(1-2), 201-13, 1998.

Hosea, NA, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of nonionic detergents by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Arch Biochem Biophys, 353(2), 365-73, 1998.

Kim, MS, Guengerich, FP. Polymerase blockage and misincorporation of dNTPs opposite the ethylene dibromide-derived DNA adducts S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, S-[2-(N2-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, and S-[2-(O6-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol, 11(4), 311-6, 1998.


Parikh, A, Guengerich, FP. Random mutagenesis by whole-plasmid PCR amplification. Biotechniques, 24(3), 428-31, 1998.

Shimada, T, Wunsch, RM, Hanna, IH, Sutter, TR, Guengerich, FP, Gillam, EM. Recombinant human cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in Escherichia coli. Arch Biochem Biophys, 357(1), 111-20, 1998.

Shimada, T, Yamazaki, H, Foroozesh, M, Hopkins, NE, Alworth, WL, Guengerich, FP. Selectivity of polycyclic inhibitors for human cytochrome P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1. Chem Res Toxicol, 11(9), 1048-56, 1998.

Bell, LC, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation kinetics of ethanol by human cytochrome P450 2E1. Rate-limiting product release accounts for effects of isotopic hydrogen substitution and cytochrome b5 on steady-state kinetics. J Biol Chem, 272(47), 29643-51, 1997.

Furge, LL, Guengerich, FP. Analysis of nucleotide insertion and extension at 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine by replicative T7 polymerase exo- and human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase using steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics. Biochemistry, 36(21), 6475-87, 1997.

Guengerich, FP. Comparisons of catalytic selectivity of cytochrome P450 subfamily enzymes from different species. Chem Biol Interact, 106(3), 161-82, 1997.

Guengerich, FP. Role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in drug-drug interactions. Adv Pharmacol, 43, 7-35, 1997.

Guengerich, FP, Johnson, WW. Kinetics of ferric cytochrome P450 reduction by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase: rapid reduction in the absence of substrate and variations among cytochrome P450 systems. Biochemistry, 36(48), 14741-50, 1997.

Guengerich, FP, Kim, MS, M??ller, M, Lowe, LG. Chemical mechanisms of formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts, elucidation of potential of adducts for mutagenicity, and mechanisms of polymerase fidelity and mutation in the presence of adducts. Recent Results Cancer Res, 143, 49-63, 1997.

Guengerich, FP, Parikh, A. Expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 8(5), 623-8, 1997.

Guengerich, FP, Parikh, A, Johnson, EF, Richardson, TH, von Wachenfeldt, C, Cosme, J, Jung, F, Strassburg, CP, Manns, MP, Tukey, RH, Pritchard, M, Fournel-Gigleux, S, Burchell, B. Heterologous expression of human drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos, 25(11), 1234-41, 1997.

Guengerich, FP, Vaz, AD, Raner, GN, Pernecky, SJ, Coon, MJ. Evidence for a role of a perferryl-oxygen complex, FeO3+, in the N-oxygenation of amines by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Mol Pharmacol, 51(1), 147-51, 1997.

Johnson, WW, Guengerich, FP. Reaction of aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide with DNA: kinetic analysis of covalent binding and DNA-induced hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94(12), 6121-5, 1997. PMCID:21012

Johnson, WW, Ueng, YF, Widersten, M, Mannervik, B, Hayes, JD, Sherratt, PJ, Ketterer, B, Guengerich, FP. Conjugation of highly reactive aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide catalyzed by rat and human glutathione transferases: estimation of kinetic parameters. Biochemistry, 36(11), 3056-60, 1997.

Johnson, WW, Yamazaki, H, Shimada, T, Ueng, YF, Guengerich, FP. Aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide hydrolysis in the presence of rat and human epoxide hydrolase. Chem Res Toxicol, 10(6), 672-6, 1997.

Kim, MS, Guengerich, FP. Synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the ethylene dibromide-derived DNA adducts S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, S-[2-(N2-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, and S-[2-(O6-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione at a single site. Chem Res Toxicol, 10(10), 1133-43, 1997.


M??ller, M, Belas, FJ, Blair, IA, Guengerich, FP. Analysis of 1,N2-ethenoguanine and 5,6,7,9-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-9-oxoimidazo[1,2-a]purine in DNA treated with 2-chlorooxirane by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry and comparison of amounts to other DNA adducts. Chem Res Toxicol, 10(2), 242-7, 1997.

Parikh, A, Gillam, EM, Guengerich, FP. Drug metabolism by Escherichia coli expressing human cytochromes P450. Nat Biotechnol, 15(8), 784-8, 1997.

Parikh, A, Guengerich, FP. Expression, purification, and characterization of a catalytically active human cytochrome P450 1A2:rat NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein. Protein Expr Purif, 9(3), 346-54, 1997.

Tateishi, T, Soucek, P, Caraco, Y, Guengerich, FP, Wood, AJ. Colchicine biotransformation by human liver microsomes. Identification of CYP3A4 as the major isoform responsible for colchicine demethylation. Biochem Pharmacol, 53(1), 111-6, 1997.

Ueng, YF, Kuwabara, T, Chun, YJ, Guengerich, FP. Cooperativity in oxidations catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4. Biochemistry, 36(2), 370-81, 1997.

Anzenbacher, P, Niwa, T, Tolbert, LM, Sirimanne, SR, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of 9-alkylanthracenes by cytochrome P450 2B1, horseradish peroxidase, and iron tetraphenylporphine/iodosylbenzene systems: anaerobic and aerobic mechanisms. Biochemistry, 35(8), 2512-20, 1996.

Caraco, Y, Tateishi, T, Guengerich, FP, Wood, AJ. Microsomal codeine N-demethylation: cosegregation with cytochrome P4503A4 activity. Drug Metab Dispos, 24(7), 761-4, 1996.

Chang, MS, Boeglin, WE, Guengerich, FP, Brash, AR. Cytochrome P450-dependent transformations of 15R- and 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids: stereoselective formation of epoxy alcohol products. Biochemistry, 35(2), 464-71, 1996.

Chun, YJ, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Construction of a human cytochrome P450 1A1: rat NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein cDNA and expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and catalytic properties of the enzyme in bacterial cells and after purification. Arch Biochem Biophys, 330(1), 48-58, 1996.

Dong, MS, Bell, LC, Guo, Z, Phillips, DR, Blair, IA, Guengerich, FP. Identification of retained N-formylmethionine in bacterial recombinant mammalian cytochrome P450 proteins with the N-terminal sequence MALLLAVFL...: roles of residues 3-5 in retention and membrane topology. Biochemistry, 35(31), 10031-40, 1996.

Dong, MS, Yamazaki, H, Guo, Z, Guengerich, FP. Recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 and an N-terminal-truncated form: construction, purification, aggregation properties, and interactions with flavodoxin, ferredoxin, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Arch Biochem Biophys, 327(1), 11-9, 1996.

Guengerich, FP. In vitro techniques for studying drug metabolism. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm, 24(5), 521-33, 1996.

Guengerich, FP, Gillam, EM, Shimada, T. New applications of bacterial systems to problems in toxicology. Crit Rev Toxicol, 26(5), 551-83, 1996.

Guengerich, FP, Johnson, WW, Ueng, YF, Yamazaki, H, Shimada, T. Involvement of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer. Environ Health Perspect, 104 Suppl 3, 557-62, 1996. PMCID:1469621

Guengerich, FP, Martin, MV, Guo, Z, Chun, YJ. Purification of functional recombinant P450s from bacteria. Methods Enzymol, 272, 35-44, 1996.

Guengerich, FP, Yun, CH, Macdonald, TL. Evidence for a 1-electron oxidation mechanism in N-dealkylation of N,N-dialkylanilines by cytochrome P450 2B1. Kinetic hydrogen isotope effects, linear free energy relationships, comparisons with horseradish peroxidase, and studies with oxygen surrogates. J Biol Chem, 271(44), 27321-9, 1996.

Kim, RB, Yamazaki, H, Chiba, K, O'Shea, D, Mimura, M, Guengerich, FP, Ishizaki, T, Shimada, T, Wilkinson, GR. In vivo and in vitro characterization of CYP2E1 activity in Japanese and Caucasians. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 279(1), 4-11, 1996.

Lang, CC, Brown, RM, Kinirons, MT, Deathridge, MA, Guengerich, FP, Kelleher, D, O''Briain, DS, Ghishan, FK, Wood, AJ. Decreased intestinal CYP3A in celiac disease: reversal after successful gluten-free diet: a potential source of interindividual variability in first-pass drug metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 59(1), 41-6, 1996.

Lowe, LG, Guengerich, FP. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of dNTP insertion opposite 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine by Escherichia coli polymerases I exo- and II exo-. Biochemistry, 35(30), 9840-9, 1996.

M??ller, M, Belas, F, Ueno, H, Guengerich, FP. Development of a mass spectrometric assay for 5,6,7,9-tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-9-oximidazo[1,2-alpha] purine in DNA modified by 2-chloro-oxirane. Adv Exp Med Biol, 387, 31-6, 1996.

M??ller, M, Hutchinson, LK, Guengerich, FP. Addition of deoxyribose to guanine and modified DNA based by Lactobacillus helveticus trans-N-deoxyribosylase. Chem Res Toxicol, 9(7), 1140-4, 1996.

Shimada, T, Hayes, CL, Yamazaki, H, Amin, S, Hecht, SS, Guengerich, FP, Sutter, TR. Activation of chemically diverse procarcinogens by human cytochrome P-450 1B1. Cancer Res, 56(13), 2979-84, 1996.

Tateishi, T, Krivoruk, Y, Ueng, YF, Wood, AJ, Guengerich, FP, Wood, M. Identification of human liver cytochrome P-450 3A4 as the enzyme responsible for fentanyl and sufentanil N-dealkylation. Anesth Analg, 82(1), 167-72, 1996.

Yamazaki, H, Johnson, WW, Ueng, YF, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Lack of electron transfer from cytochrome b5 in stimulation of catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4. Characterization of a reconstituted cytochrome P450 3A4/NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system and studies with apo-cytochrome b5. J Biol Chem, 271(44), 27438-44, 1996.

Bauer, E, Guo, Z, Ueng, YF, Bell, LC, Zeldin, D, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol, 8(1), 136-42, 1995.

Guengerich, FP. Influence of nutrients and other dietary materials on cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Am J Clin Nutr, 61(3 Suppl), 651S-658S, 1995.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450 proteins and potential utilization in biodegradation. Environ Health Perspect, 103 Suppl 5, 25-8, 1995. PMCID:1519292

Guengerich, FP, Bell, LC, Okazaki, O. Interpretations of cytochrome P450 mechanisms from kinetic studies. Biochimie, 77(7-8), 573-80, 1995.

Guengerich, FP, Humphreys, WG, Yun, CH, Hammons, GJ, Kadlubar, FF, Seto, Y, Okazaki, O, Martin, MV. Mechanisms of cytochrome P450 1A2-mediated formation of N-hydroxy arylamines and heterocyclic amines and their reaction with guanyl residues. Princess Takamatsu Symp, 23, 78-84, 1995.

Guengerich, FP, Okazaki, O, Seto, Y, Macdonald, TL. Radical cation intermediates in N-dealkylation reactions. Xenobiotica, 25(7), 689-709, 1995.

Guengerich, FP, Thier, R, Persmark, M, Taylor, JB, Pemble, SE, Ketterer, B. Conjugation of carcinogens by theta class glutathione s-transferases: mechanisms and relevance to variations in human risk. Pharmacogenetics, 5 Spec No, S103-7, 1995.

Soucek, P, Martin, MV, Ueng, YF, Guengerich, FP. Identification of a common cytochrome P450 epitope near the conserved heme-binding petide with antibodies raised against recombinant cytochrome P450 family 2 proteins. Biochemistry, 34(49), 16013-21, 1995.

Tateishi, T, Wood, AJ, Guengerich, FP, Wood, M. Biotransformation of tritiated fentanyl in human liver microsomes. Monitoring metabolism using phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol. Biochem Pharmacol, 50(11), 1921-4, 1995.

Thier, R, M??ller, M, Taylor, JB, Pemble, SE, Ketterer, B, Guengerich, FP. Enhancement of bacterial mutagenicity of bifunctional alkylating agents by expression of mammalian glutathione S-transferase. Chem Res Toxicol, 8(3), 465-72, 1995.

Ueng, YF, Shimada, T, Yamazaki, H, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of aflatoxin B1 by bacterial recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol, 8(2), 218-25, 1995.

Yamazaki, H, Guo, Z, Guengerich, FP. Selectivity of cytochrome P4502E1 in chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Dispos, 23(3), 438-40, 1995.

Yamazaki, H, Ueng, YF, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Roles of divalent metal ions in oxidations catalyzed by recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 and replacement of NADPH--cytochrome P450 reductase with other flavoproteins, ferredoxin, and oxygen surrogates. Biochemistry, 34(26), 8380-9, 1995.

Gillam, EM, Guo, Z, Guengerich, FP. Expression of modified human cytochrome P450 2E1 in Escherichia coli, purification, and spectral and catalytic properties. Arch Biochem Biophys, 312(1), 59-66, 1994.

Guengerich, FP. Mechanisms of formation of DNA adducts from ethylene dihalides, vinyl halides, and arylamines. Drug Metab Rev, 26(1-2), 47-66, 1994.

Guengerich, FP. Metabolism and genotoxicity of dihaloalkanes. Adv Pharmacol, 27, 211-36, 1994.

Guengerich, FP. Catalytic selectivity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: relevance to drug metabolism and toxicity. Toxicol Lett, 70(2), 133-8, 1994.

Guengerich, FP, Min, KS, Persmark, M, Kim, MS, Humphreys, WG, Cmarik, JM, Thier, R. Dihaloalkanes and polyhaloalkenes. IARC Sci Publ, (125), 57-72, 1994.

Guengerich, FP, Persmark, M. Mechanism of formation of ethenoguanine adducts from 2-haloacetaldehydes: 13C-labeling patterns with 2-bromoacetaldehyde. Chem Res Toxicol, 7(2), 205-8, 1994.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T, Yun, CH, Yamazaki, H, Raney, KD, Thier, R, Coles, B, Harris, TM. Interactions of ingested food, beverage, and tobacco components involving human cytochrome P4501A2, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4 enzymes. Environ Health Perspect, 102 Suppl 9, 49-53, 1994. PMCID:1566791

Guo, Z, Gillam, EM, Ohmori, S, Tukey, RH, Guengerich, FP. Expression of modified human cytochrome P450 1A1 in Escherichia coli: effects of 5' substitution, stabilization, purification, spectral characterization, and catalytic properties. Arch Biochem Biophys, 312(2), 436-46, 1994.

Persmark, M, Guengerich, FP. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the interaction of N7-guanyl thioether derivatives of d(TGCTG*CAAG) with potential complements. Biochemistry, 33(29), 8662-72, 1994.

Persmark, M, Humphreys, WG, Okazaki, O, Raney, VM, Guengerich, FP. Mechanisms of formation of 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 3,N4-ethenocytosine, 1,N2-ethenoguanine and N2,3-ethenoguanine DNA adducts from substituted oxiranes. IARC Sci Publ, (125), 437-41, 1994.

Sandhu, P, Guo, Z, Baba, T, Martin, MV, Tukey, RH, Guengerich, FP. Expression of modified human cytochrome P450 1A2 in Escherichia coli: stabilization, purification, spectral characterization, and catalytic activities of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys, 309(1), 168-77, 1994.

Shimada, T, Gillam, EM, Sandhu, P, Guo, Z, Tukey, RH, Guengerich, FP. Activation of procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. Simplified bacterial systems for genotoxicity assays. Carcinogenesis, 15(11), 2523-9, 1994.

Gillam, EM, Baba, T, Kim, BR, Ohmori, S, Guengerich, FP. Expression of modified human cytochrome P450 3A4 in Escherichia coli and purification and reconstitution of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys, 305(1), 123-31, 1993.

Guengerich, FP. The 1992 Bernard B. Brodie Award Lecture. Bioactivation and detoxication of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Drug Metab Dispos, 21(1), 1-6, 1993.

Guengerich, FP, Gillam, EM, Ohmori, S, Sandhu, P, Brian, WR, Sari, MA, Iwasaki, M. Expression of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in yeast and bacteria and relevance to studies on catalytic specificity. Toxicology, 82(1-3), 21-37, 1993.

Guengerich, FP, Persmark, M, Humphreys, WG. Formation of 1,N2- and N2,3-ethenoguanine from 2-halooxiranes: isotopic labeling studies and isolation of a hemiaminal derivative of N2-(2-oxoethyl)guanine. Chem Res Toxicol, 6(5), 635-48, 1993.

Karara, A, Makita, K, Jacobson, HR, Falck, JR, Guengerich, FP, DuBois, RN, Capdevila, JH. Molecular cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of the rat kidney cytochrome P-450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase. J Biol Chem, 268(18), 13565-70, 1993.

Kim, MS, Guengerich, FP. Interactions of N7-guanyl methyl- and thioether-substituted d(CATGCCT) derivatives with d(AGGNATG). Chem Res Toxicol, 6(6), 900-5, 1993.

Okazaki, O, Guengerich, FP. Evidence for specific base catalysis in N-dealkylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and chloroperoxidase. Differences in rates of deprotonation of aminium radicals as an explanation for high kinetic hydrogen isotope effects observed with peroxidases. J Biol Chem, 268(3), 1546-52, 1993.

Okazaki, O, Persmark, M, Guengerich, FP. N-nitroso-N-methylvinylamine: reaction of the epoxide with guanyl and adenyl moieties to yield adducts derived from both parts of the molecule. Chem Res Toxicol, 6(2), 168-73, 1993.

Sandhu, P, Baba, T, Guengerich, FP. Expression of modified cytochrome P450 2C10 (2C9) in Escherichia coli, purification, and reconstitution of catalytic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys, 306(2), 443-50, 1993.

Seto, Y, Guengerich, FP. Partitioning between N-dealkylation and N-oxygenation in the oxidation of N,N-dialkylarylamines catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B1. J Biol Chem, 268(14), 9986-97, 1993.

Seto, Y, Guengerich, FP. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-substituted N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides. J Chromatogr, 619(1), 71-7, 1993.

Thier, R, Taylor, JB, Pemble, SE, Humphreys, WG, Persmark, M, Ketterer, B, Guengerich, FP. Expression of mammalian glutathione S-transferase 5-5 in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 leads to base-pair mutations upon exposure to dihalomethanes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90(18), 8576-80, 1993. PMCID:47400

Yun, CH, Okerholm, RA, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of the antihistaminic drug terfenadine in human liver microsomes. Role of cytochrome P-450 3A(4) in N-dealkylation and C-hydroxylation. Drug Metab Dispos, 21(3), 403-9, 1993.

Capdevila, JH, Wei, S, Yan, J, Karara, A, Jacobson, HR, Falck, JR, Guengerich, FP, DuBois, RN. Cytochrome P-450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase. Regulatory control of the renal epoxygenase by dietary salt loading. J Biol Chem, 267(30), 21720-6, 1992.

Cmarik, JL, Humphreys, WG, Bruner, KL, Lloyd, RS, Tibbetts, C, Guengerich, FP. Mutation spectrum and sequence alkylation selectivity resulting from modification of bacteriophage M13mp18 DNA with S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione. Evidence for a role of S-(2-N7-guanyl)ethyl)glutathione as a mutagenic lesion formed from ethylene dibromide. J Biol Chem, 267(10), 6672-9, 1992.

Fleming, CM, Branch, RA, Wilkinson, GR, Guengerich, FP. Human liver microsomal N-hydroxylation of dapsone by cytochrome P-4503A4. Mol Pharmacol, 41(5), 975-80, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes. FASEB J, 6(2), 745-8, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochrome P450: advances and prospects. FASEB J, 6(2), 667-8, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Roles of the vinyl chloride oxidation products 1-chlorooxirane and 2-chloroacetaldehyde in the in vitro formation of etheno adducts of nucleic acid bases [corrected. Chem Res Toxicol, 5(1), 2-5, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Life Sci, 50(20), 1471-8, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Metabolic activation of carcinogens. Pharmacol Ther, 54(1), 17-61, 1992.

Guengerich, FP, Raney, KD, Kim, DH, Shimada, T, Meyer, DJ, Ketterer, B, Harris, TM. Oxidation and conjugation of aflatoxins by humans and experimental animals. Prog Clin Biol Res, 374, 157-65, 1992.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T, Raney, KD, Yun, CH, Meyer, DJ, Ketterer, B, Harris, TM, Groopman, JD, Kadlubar, FF. Elucidation of catalytic specificities of human cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes and relevance to molecular epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect, 98, 75-80, 1992. PMCID:1519604

Humphreys, WG, Kadlubar, FF, Guengerich, FP. Mechanism of C8 alkylation of guanine residues by activated arylamines: evidence for initial adduct formation at the N7 position. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89(17), 8278-82, 1992. PMCID:49901

Raney, KD, Coles, B, Guengerich, FP, Harris, TM. The endo-8,9-epoxide of aflatoxin B1: a new metabolite. Chem Res Toxicol, 5(3), 333-5, 1992.

Raney, KD, Meyer, DJ, Ketterer, B, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Glutathione conjugation of aflatoxin B1 exo- and endo-epoxides by rat and human glutathione S-transferases. Chem Res Toxicol, 5(4), 470-8, 1992.

Raney, KD, Shimada, T, Kim, DH, Groopman, JD, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin by human liver microsomes: significance of aflatoxin Q1 as a detoxication product of aflatoxin B1. Chem Res Toxicol, 5(2), 202-10, 1992.

Shimada, T, Yun, CH, Yamazaki, H, Gautier, JC, Beaune, PH, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of human lung microsomal cytochrome P-450 1A1 and its role in the oxidation of chemical carcinogens. Mol Pharmacol, 41(5), 856-64, 1992.

Yun, CH, Hammons, GJ, Jones, G, Martin, MV, Hopkins, NE, Alworth, WL, Guengerich, FP. Modification of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzymes by the mechanism-based inactivator 2-ethynylnaphthalene and the photoaffinity label 4-azidobiphenyl. Biochemistry, 31(43), 10556-63, 1992.

Yun, CH, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Contributions of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes to the N-oxidation of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline). Carcinogenesis, 13(2), 217-22, 1992.

Yun, CH, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Roles of human liver cytochrome P4502C and 3A enzymes in the 3-hydroxylation of benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Res, 52(7), 1868-74, 1992.

Yun, CH, Wood, M, Wood, AJ, Guengerich, FP. Identification of the pharmacogenetic determinants of alfentanil metabolism: cytochrome P-450 3A4. An explanation of the variable elimination clearance. Anesthesiology, 77(3), 467-74, 1992.

Guengerich, FP. Molecular advances for the cytochrome P-450 superfamily. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 12(8), 281-3, 1991.

Guengerich, FP. Reactions and significance of cytochrome P-450 enzymes. J Biol Chem, 266(16), 10019-22, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Brian, WR, Iwasaki, M, Sari, MA, B????rnhielm, C, Berntsson, P. Oxidation of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and analogues by human liver cytochrome P-450 IIIA4. J Med Chem, 34(6), 1838-44, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Kim, DH. Enzymatic oxidation of ethyl carbamate to vinyl carbamate and its role as an intermediate in the formation of 1,N6-ethenoadenosine. Chem Res Toxicol, 4(4), 413-21, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Kim, DH, Iwasaki, M. Role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 in the oxidation of many low molecular weight cancer suspects. Chem Res Toxicol, 4(2), 168-79, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T. Oxidation of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol, 4(4), 391-407, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T, Bondon, A, Macdonald, TL. Cytochrome P-450 oxidations and the generation of biologically reactive intermediates. Adv Exp Med Biol, 283, 1-11, 1991.

Guengerich, FP, Turvy, CG. Comparison of levels of several human microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes and epoxide hydrolase in normal and disease states using immunochemical analysis of surgical liver samples. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 256(3), 1189-94, 1991.

Humphreys, WG, Guengerich, FP. Structure of formamidopyrimidine adducts as determined by NMR using specifically 15N-labeled guanosine. Chem Res Toxicol, 4(6), 632-6, 1991.

Humphreys, WG, Kim, DH, Guengerich, FP. Isolation and characterization of N7-guanyl adducts derived from 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Chem Res Toxicol, 4(4), 445-53, 1991.

Oida, T, Humphreys, WG, Guengerich, FP. Effects of adduct formation derived from ethylene dibromide on DNA conformation. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser, (25), 135-6, 1991.

Oida, T, Humphreys, WG, Guengerich, FP. Preparation and characterization of oligonucleotides containing S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione. Biochemistry, 30(43), 10513-22, 1991.

Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Activation of amino-alpha-carboline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and a copper phthalocyanine cellulose extract of cigarette smoke condensate by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Cancer Res, 51(19), 5284-91, 1991.

Srivastava, PK, Yun, CH, Beaune, PH, Ged, C, Guengerich, FP. Separation of human liver microsomal tolbutamide hydroxylase and (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Mol Pharmacol, 40(1), 69-79, 1991.

Yun, CH, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Purification and characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 2A6. Mol Pharmacol, 40(5), 679-85, 1991.

Brian, WR, Sari, MA, Iwasaki, M, Shimada, T, Kaminsky, LS, Guengerich, FP. Catalytic activities of human liver cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry, 29(51), 11280-92, 1990.

Cmarik, JL, Inskeep, PB, Meredith, MJ, Meyer, DJ, Ketterer, B, Guengerich, FP. Selectivity of rat and human glutathione S-transferases in activation of ethylene dibromide by glutathione conjugation and DNA binding and induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes. Cancer Res, 50(9), 2747-52, 1990.

Guengerich, FP. Purification and characterization of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes from lung tissue. Pharmacol Ther, 45(3), 299-307, 1990.

Guengerich, FP. Metabolism of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol in humans. Life Sci, 47(22), 1981-8, 1990.

Guengerich, FP. Mechanism-based inactivation of human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 by gestodene. Chem Res Toxicol, 3(4), 363-71, 1990.

Guengerich, FP. Low kinetic hydrogen isotope effects in the dehydrogenation of 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (nifedipine) by cytochrome P-450 enzymes are consistent with an electron/proton/electron transfer mechanism. Chem Res Toxicol, 3(1), 21-6, 1990.

Guengerich, FP. Inhibition of oral contraceptive steroid-metabolizing enzymes by steroids and drugs. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 163(6 Pt 2), 2159-63, 1990.

Guengerich, FP, Humphreys, WG, Kim, DH, Oida, T, Cmarik, JL. DNA-glutathione adducts derived from vic-dihaloalkanes: mechanisms of mutagenesis. Princess Takamatsu Symp, 21, 101-7, 1990.

Guengerich, FP, Kim, DH. In vitro inhibition of dihydropyridine oxidation and aflatoxin B1 activation in human liver microsomes by naringenin and other flavonoids. Carcinogenesis, 11(12), 2275-9, 1990.

Guengerich, FP, MacDonald, TL. Mechanisms of cytochrome P-450 catalysis. FASEB J, 4(8), 2453-9, 1990.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T, Iwasaki, M, Butler, MA, Kadlubar, FF. Activation of carcinogens by human liver cytochromes P-450. Basic Life Sci, 53, 381-96, 1990.

Guengerich, FP, Shimada, T, Iwasaki, M, Martin, MV. Activation of mutagens by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Prog Clin Biol Res, 340B, 87-96, 1990.

Humphreys, WG, Kim, DH, Cmarik, JL, Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Comparison of the DNA-alkylating properties and mutagenic responses of a series of S-(2-haloethyl)-substituted cysteine and glutathione derivatives. Biochemistry, 29(45), 10342-50, 1990.

Kim, DH, Guengerich, FP. Formation of the DNA adduct S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione from ethylene dibromide: effects of modulation of glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels and lack of a role for sulfation. Carcinogenesis, 11(3), 419-24, 1990.

Kim, DH, Humphreys, WG, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of S-[2-(N1-adenyl)ethyl]glutathione as an adduct formed in RNA and DNA from 1,2-dibromoethane. Chem Res Toxicol, 3(6), 587-94, 1990.

Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Inactivation of 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in human and rat liver microsomes. Cancer Res, 50(7), 2036-43, 1990.

Baertschi, SW, Raney, KD, Shimada, T, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Comparison of rates of enzymatic oxidation of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1, and sterigmatocystin and activities of the epoxides in forming guanyl-N7 adducts and inducing different genetic responses. Chem Res Toxicol, 2(2), 114-2, 1989.

Bondon, A, Macdonald, TL, Harris, TM, Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of cycloalkylamines by cytochrome P-450. Mechanism-based inactivation, adduct formation, ring expansion, and nitrone formation. J Biol Chem, 264(4), 1988-97, 1989.

Bork, RW, Muto, T, Beaune, PH, Srivastava, PK, Lloyd, RS, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of mRNA species related to human liver cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase and the regulation of catalytic activity. J Biol Chem, 264(2), 910-9, 1989.

Brian, WR, Ged, C, Bellew, TM, Srivastava, PK, Bork, RW, Umbenhauer, DR, Lloyd, RS, Guengerich, FP. Human liver mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 proteins and genes. Drug Metab Rev, 20(2-4), 449-65, 1989.

Brian, WR, Srivastava, PK, Umbenhauer, DR, Lloyd, RS, Guengerich, FP. Expression of a human liver cytochrome P-450 protein with tolbutamide hydroxylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry, 28(12), 4993-9, 1989.

Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of halogenated compounds by cytochrome P-450, peroxidases, and model metalloporphyrins. J Biol Chem, 264(29), 17098-205, 1989.

Guengerich, FP. Characterization of human microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 29, 241-64, 1989.

Kim, DH, Guengerich, FP. Excretion of the mercapturic acid S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]-N-acetylcysteine in urine following administration of ethylene dibromide to rats. Cancer Res, 49(21), 5843-7, 1989.

Shimada, T, Guengerich, FP. Evidence for cytochrome P-450NF, the nifedipine oxidase, being the principal enzyme involved in the bioactivation of aflatoxins in human liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 86(2), 462-5, 1989. PMCID:286490

Shimada, T, Iwasaki, M, Martin, MV, Guengerich, FP. Human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the bioactivation of procarcinogens detected by umu gene response in Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535/pSK1002. Cancer Res, 49(12), 3218-28, 1989.

Shimada, T, Martin, MV, Pruess-Schwartz, D, Marnett, LJ, Guengerich, FP. Roles of individual human cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the bioactivation of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene, and other dihydrodiol derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Res, 49(22), 6304-12, 1989.

Wilkinson, GR, Guengerich, FP, Branch, RA. Genetic polymorphism of S-mephenytoin hydroxylation. Pharmacol Ther, 43(1), 53-76, 1989.

Ged, C, Umbenhauer, DR, Bellew, TM, Bork, RW, Srivastava, PK, Shinriki, N, Lloyd, RS, Guengerich, FP. Characterization of cDNAs, mRNAs, and proteins related to human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase. Biochemistry, 27(18), 6929-40, 1988.

Guengerich, FP. Oxidation of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol by human liver cytochrome P-450. Mol Pharmacol, 33(5), 500-8, 1988.

Guengerich, FP. Roles of cytochrome P-450 enzymes in chemical carcinogenesis and cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Res, 48(11), 2946-54, 1988.

Guengerich, FP. Cytochromes P-450. Comp Biochem Physiol C, 89(1), 1-4, 1988.

Guengerich, FP, B??cker, RH. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed dehydrogenation of 1,4-dihydropyridines. J Biol Chem, 263(17), 8168-75, 1988.

Guengerich, FP, Peterson, LA, B??cker, RH. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed hydroxylation and carboxylic acid ester cleavage of Hantzsch pyridine esters. J Biol Chem, 263(17), 8176-83, 1988.

Knodell, RG, Dubey, RK, Wilkinson, GR, Guengerich, FP. Oxidative metabolism of hexobarbital in human liver: relationship to polymorphic S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 245(3), 845-9, 1988.

Guengerich, FP, Beaune, PH, Umbenhauer, DR, Churchill, PF, Bork, RW, Dannan, GA, Knodell, RG, Lloyd, RS, Martin, MV. Cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in genetic polymorphism of drug oxidation in humans. Biochem Soc Trans, 15(4), 576-8, 1987.

Guengerich, FP, Churchill, PF, Jung, CY, Fleischer, S. Target inactivation analysis applied to determination of molecular weights of rat liver proteins in the purified state and in microsomal membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta, 915(2), 246-53, 1987.

Guengerich, FP, Peterson, LA, Cmarik, JL, Koga, N, Inskeep, PB. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts. Environ Health Perspect, 76, 15-8, 1987. PMCID:1474475

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