Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Richmond, Ann , Ph.D.
Professor of Cancer Biology
Ingram Professor of Cancer Research
Professor of Medicine

Lab Url:

Phone Number: 615-343-7777


Richmond, Ann's picture

Office Address   Mailing Address

432-B PRB

2220 Pierce Avenue - 771 PRB 37232

Research Keywords
chemokines, transcription, signal transduction, melanoma, breast cancer, vascular biology

Research Description

A major question we are trying to answer in my laboratory is "What is the role of the inflammatory response in tumor progression". We are studying the role of proteins that promote the migration of inflammatory cells into tissues. These "chemotactic" proteins can educate leukocytes to either stimulate or inhibit tumor progression. These factors can also stimulate the growth of the tumor and recruit blood vessels into the tumor to provide a continuous supply of nutrients to feed tumor growth. We have tested with a variety of pharmaceutical drugs that shut down the inflammatory process and alter the expression of genes that recruit inflammatory cells into the tumor microenvironment. We are also evaluating how to deliver therapies that teach the patient's leukocytes to fight the growth of the tumor and switch from a pro-tumorigenic to an anti-tumorigenic state.
We have also learned that this inflammatory process, combined with other genetic and environmental factors, contributes to mutations in genes that regulate the growth of cells. Some of these mutations make the cells capable of continuous growth and enable the cancer cells to spread throughout the body and grow in distant organs. By determining what genes become mutated or amplified in each patient's tumor and then providing therapies that specifically inhibit the activity of that mutated or amplified gene, we can deliver "personalized cancer treatment" that addresses the problem in that persons specific cancer. This works so much better than the "one size fits all" approach often used previously in chemotherapy. Recently we have determined that inhibition of aurora kinases induce tumor cells to undergo senescence and when we inhibit aurora kinases while at the same time activate the tumor suppressor p53 or the death receptor DR5, melanoma cells die and tumors regress. We are also interested in evaluating how therapeutic agents that target driver mutations such as PI3K, RAS or BRAF affect the tumor microenvironment and the immune response to the tumor. We postulate that in some instances drug resistance comes in part due to deleterious effects of the therapy on the tumor microenvironment. We collaborate with medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, bioengineers, cellular and molecular biologists, and scientists in pharmaceutical companies to address the scientific questions we are asking. This TEAM interaction enables us to optimize our studies to make important breakthroughs in tumor biology and tumor therapy. Our research is funded by the TVHS Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Cancer Institute, and the Department of Defense. I work with a wonderful group of postdoctoral fellows, students, and laboratory scientists who dedicate their lives to providing better treatments for cancer patients.

Liu, Y, Hawkins, OE, Su, Y, Vilgelm, AE, Sobolik, T, Thu, YM, Kantrow, S, Splittgerber, RC, Short, S, Amiri, KI, Ecsedy, JA, Sosman, JA, Kelley, MC, Richmond, A. Targeting aurora kinases limits tumour growth through DNA damage-mediated senescence and blockade of NF-??B impairs this drug-induced senescence. EMBO Mol Med, , , 2013 PMCID:23180582.

Crowder, SW, Horton, LW, Lee, SH, McClain, CM, Hawkins, OE, Palmer, AM, Bae, H, Richmond, A, Sung, HJ. Passage-dependent cancerous transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells under carcinogenic hypoxia. FASEB J, , , 2013.

Richmond, AL. The hardest decision. Am J Nurs, 113(2), 72, 2013.

Yang, J, Kantrow, S, Sai, J, Hawkins, OE, Boothby, M, Ayers, GD, Young, ED, Demicco, EG, Lazar, AJ, Lev, D, Richmond, A. Ikk4a/Arf Inactivation with Activation of the NF-I?B/IL-6 Pathway Is Sufficient to Drive the Development and Growth of Angiosarcoma. Cancer Res, 72(18), 4682-95, 2012. PMID22836752; NIHMS397632; PMC3459578.

Thu, YM, Su, Y, Yang, J, Splittgerber, R, Na, S, Boyd, A, Mosse, C, Simons, C, Richmond, A. NF-I?B inducing kinase (NIK) modulates melanoma tumorigenesis by regulating expression of pro-survival factors through the I?-catenin pathway. Oncogene, 31(20)(May 17), 2580-92, 2012 PMCID:21963849.

Raghuwanshi, SK, Su, Y, Singh, V, Haynes, K, Richmond, A, Richardson, RM. The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 couple to distinct g protein-coupled receptor kinases to mediate and regulate leukocyte functions. J Immunol, 189(6), 2824-32, 2012 PMID: 22869904; NIHMS392618; PMC3436986.

Hawkins, OE, Richmond, A. The dynamic yin-yang interaction of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in breast cancer metastasis. Breast Cancer Res, 14(1), 103, 2012. PMCID:3335021

Lovly, CM, Dahlman, KB, Fohn, LE, Su, Z, Dias-Santagata, D, Hicks, DJ, Hucks, D, Berry, E, Terry, C, Duke, M, Su, Y, Sobolik-Delmaire, T, Richmond, A, Kelley, MC, Vnencak-Jones, CL, Iafrate, AJ, Sosman, J, Pao, W. Routine multiplex mutational profiling of melanomas enables enrollment in genotype-driven therapeutic trials. PLoS One, 7(4), e35309, 2012. PMCID:3335021

Su, Y, Vilgelm, AE, Kelley, MC, Hawkins, OE, Liu, Y, Boyd, KL, Kantrow, S, Splittgerber, RC, Short, SP, Sobolik, T, Zaja-Milatovic, S, Dahlman, KB, Amiri, KI, Jiang, A, Lu, P, Shyr, Y, Stuart, DD, Levy, S, Sosman, JA, Richmond, A. RAF265 inhibits the growth of advanced human melanoma tumors. Clin Cancer Res, 18(8), 2184-98, 2012. PMCID:3335021

Raman, D, Sobolik, T, Richmond, A. Chemokines in health and disease. Exp Cell Res, 317(5)(Mar 10), 575-89, 2011 PMCID:21223965.

Raman, D, Milatovic, SZ, Milatovic, D, Splittgerber, R, Fan, GH, Richmond, A. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1I?, suppress amyloid I?-induced neurotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, Nov 1(256(3)), 300-13, 2011 PMCID:21704645.

Neel, NF, Sai, J, Ham, AJ, Sobolik-Delmaire, T, Mernaugh, RL, Richmond, A. IQGAP1 is a novel CXCR2-interacting protein and essential component of the "chemosynapse". PLoS One, 6(8), e23813, 2011.

Richmond, A. Chemokine research moves on. Exp Cell Res, 317(5), 553-5, 2011.

Gruver, JS, Potdar, AA, Jeon, J, Sai, J, Anderson, B, Webb, D, Richmond, A, Quaranta, V, Cummings, PT, Chung, CY. Bimodal analysis reveals a general scaling law governing nondirected and chemotactic cell motility. Biophys J, 99(2), 367-76, 2010 PMCID 20643054.

Thu, YM, Richmond, A. NF-I?B inducing kinase: a key regulator in the immune system and in cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 21(4), 213-26, 2010 PMCID:20685151.

Yang, J, Splittgerber, R, Yull, FE, Kantrow, S, Ayers, GD, Karin, M, Richmond, A. Conditional ablation of Ikkb inhibits melanoma tumor development in mice. J Clin Invest, 120(7)(July 2010), 2563-74, 2010 PMCID:20530876.

Lazennec, G, Richmond, A. Chemokines and chemokine receptors: new insights into cancer-related inflammation. Trends Mol Med, 16(3), 133-44, 2010. PMCID:2856662

Raman, D, Sai, J, Neel, NF, Chew, CS, Richmond, A. LIM and SH3 protein-1 modulates CXCR2-mediated cell migration. PLoS One, 5(4), e10050, 2010. PMCID:2856662

Richmond, A. Chemokines in tumor microenvironment revealed. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 23(3), 312-313, 2010. PMCID:2856662

Su, Y, Amiri, KI, Horton, LW, Yu, Y, Ayers, GD, Koehler, E, Kelley, MC, Puzanov, I, Richmond, A, Sosman, JA. A phase I trial of bortezomib with temozolomide in patients with advanced melanoma: toxicities, antitumor effects, and modulation of therapeutic targets. Clin Cancer Res, 16(1), 348-57, 2010. PMCID:2856662

Yang, J, Richmond, AJ. Monitoring NF-kappaB mediated chemokine transcription in tumorigenesis. Methods Enzymol, 460(2009), 347-55, 2009 PMCID:19446734.

Raman, D, Neel, NF, Sai, J, Mernaugh, RL, Ham, AJ, Richmond, AJ. Characterization of chemokine receptor CXCR2 interacting proteins using a proteomics approach to define the CXCR2 "chemosynapse". Methods Enzymol, 460, 315-30, 2009 PMCID:19446732.

Yang, J, Zaja-Milatovic, S, Thu, YM, Lee, F, Smykla, R, Richmond, A. Molecular determinants of melanoma malignancy: selecting targets for improved efficacy of chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther, 8(3), 636-47, 2009 PMCID:19276165.

Richmond, A, Yang, J, Su, Y. The good and the bad of chemokines/chemokine receptors in melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 22(2), 175-86, 2009 PMCID:19222802.

Neel, NF, Barzik, M, Raman, D, Sobolik-Delmaire, T, Sai, J, Ham, AJ, Mernaugh, RL, Gertler, FB, Richmond, A. VASP is a CXCR2-interacting protein that regulates CXCR2-mediated polarization and chemotaxis. J Cell Sci, 122(Pt 11), 1882-94, 2009. PMCID:2684839

Pruenster, M, Mudde, L, Bombosi, P, Dimitrova, S, Zsak, M, Middleton, J, Richmond, A, Graham, GJ, Segerer, S, Nibbs, RJ, Rot, A. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines transports chemokines and supports their promigratory activity. Nat Immunol, 10(1), 101-8, 2009. PMCID:2848967

Wang, D, Dubois, RN, Richmond, A. The role of chemokines in intestinal inflammation and cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 9(6), 688-96, 2009. PMCID:2775807

Zaja-Milatovic, S, Richmond, A. CXC chemokines and their receptors: a case for a significant biological role in cutaneous wound healing. Histol Histopathol, 23(11), 1399-407, 2008 PMCID:18785122.

Richmond, A. CCR9 homes metastatic melanoma cells to the small bowel. Clin Cancer Res, 14(3), 621-3, 2008 PMCID:18245518.

Baugher, PJ, Richmond, A. The carboxyl-terminal PDZ ligand motif of chemokine receptor CXCR2 modulates post-endocytic sorting and cellular chemotaxis. J Biol Chem, 283(45), 30868-78, 2008.

Dhawan, P, Su, Y, Thu, YM, Yu, Y, Baugher, PJ, Ellis, DL, Sobolik-Delmaire, T, Kelley, M, Cheung, TC, Ware, CF, Richmond, A. The lymphotoxin-beta receptor is an upstream activator of NF-kappaB mediated transcription in melanoma cells. J Biol Chem, , , 2008. PMCID:2397477

Liu, Y, Sai, J, Richmond, A, Wikswo, JP. Microfluidic switching system for analyzing chemotaxis responses of wortmannin-inhibited HL-60 cells. Biomed Microdevices, , , 2008. PMCID:2668251

Richmond, A, Su, Y. Mouse xenograft models vs GEM models for human cancer therapeutics. Dis Model Mech, 1(2-3), 78-82, 2008. PMCID:2562196

Sai, J, Raman, D, Liu, Y, Wikswo, J, Richmond, A. Parallel PI3K-dependent and Src-dependent pathways lead to CXCL8- mediated Rac2 activation and chemotaxis. J Biol Chem, , , 2008. PMCID:2546539

Yang, L, Huang, J, Ren, X, Gorska, AE, Chytil, A, Aakre, M, Carbone, DP, Matrisian, LM, Richmond, A, Lin, PC, Moses, HL. Abrogation of TGF beta signaling in mammary carcinomas recruits Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells that promote metastasis. Cancer Cell, 13(1), 23-35, 2008. PMCID:2245859

Yu, Y, Su, Y, Opalenik, SR, Sobolik-Delmaire, T, Neel, NF, Zaja-Milatovic, S, Sai, J, Richmond, A. Short tail with skin lesion phenotype occurs in transgenic mice with keratin-14 promoter-directed expression of mutant CXCR2. J Leukoc Biol, , , 2008. PMCID:2493076

Neel NF, Lapierre LA, Goldenring JR, Richmond A.. RhoB plays an essential role in CXCR2 sorting decisions.. J Cell Sci, 120(Pt 9), 1559-71, 2007 PMCID:17405813.

Horton, LW, Yu, Y, Zaja-Milatovic, S, Strieter, RM, Richmond, A. Opposing roles of murine duffy antigen receptor for chemokine and murine CXC chemokine receptor-2 receptors in murine melanoma tumor growth. Cancer Res, 67(20), 9791-9, 2007. PMCID:2668258

Kantrow, SM, Boyd, AS, Ellis, DL, Nanney, LB, Richmond, A, Shyr, Y, Robbins, JB. Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas. J Cutan Pathol, 34(8), 593-6, 2007. PMCID:2665272

Miller-Kittrell, M, Sai, J, Penfold, M, Richmond, A, Sparer, TE. Functional characterization of chimpanzee cytomegalovirus chemokine, vCXCL-1(CCMV). Virology, 364(2), 454-65, 2007. PMCID:2665277

Raman, D, Baugher, PJ, Thu, YM, Richmond, A. Role of chemokines in tumor growth. Cancer Lett, 256(2), 137-65, 2007. PMCID:2065851

Schutyser E, Su Y, Yu Y, Gouwy M, Zaja-Milatovic S, Van Damme J, Richmond A.. Hypoxia enhances CXCR4 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells and human melanoma cells. Eur Cytokine Netw, 18(2), 59-70, 2007. PMCID:2665278

Ueda, Y, Su, Y, Richmond, A. CCAAT displacement protein regulates nuclear factor-kappa beta-mediated chemokine transcription in melanoma cells. Melanoma Res, 17(2), 91-103, 2007. PMCID:2665270

Yang, J, Pan, WH, Clawson, GA, Richmond, A. Systemic targeting inhibitor of kappaB kinase inhibits melanoma tumor growth. Cancer Res, 67(7), 3127-34, 2007. PMCID:2665271

Yang, J, Su, Y, Richmond, A. Antioxidants tiron and N-acetyl-L-cysteine differentially mediate apoptosis in melanoma cells via a reactive oxygen species-independent NF-kappaB pathway. Free Radic Biol Med, 42(9), 1369-80, 2007. PMCID:1905840

Lee JS, Wurfel MM, Matute-Bello G, Frevert CW, Rosengart MR, Ranganathan M, Wong VW, Holden T, Sutlief S, Richmond A, Peiper S, Martin TR.. The Duffy antigen modifies systemic and local tissue chemokine responses following lipopolysaccharide stimulation.. J Immunol., (11)(177), 8086-94., 2006 PMCID:17114483.

Sai, J, Walker, G, Wikswo, J, Richmond, A. The IL sequence in the LLKIL motif in CXCR2 is required for full ligand-induced activation of Erk, Akt, and chemotaxis in HL60 cells. J Biol Chem, 281(47), 35931-41, 2006 PMCID:16690258.

Amiri, KI, Ha, HC, Smulson, ME, Richmond, A. Differential regulation of CXC ligand 1 transcription in melanoma cell lines by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Oncogene, 25(59), 7714-22, 2006. PMCID:2665274

Ueda, Y, Neel, NF, Schutyser, E, Raman, D, Richmond, A. Deletion of the COOH-terminal domain of CXC chemokine receptor 4 leads to the down-regulation of cell-to-cell contact, enhanced motility and proliferation in breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res, 66(11), 5665-75, 2006. PMCID:2664111

Ueda, Y, Richmond, A. NF-kappaB activation in melanoma. Pigment Cell Res, 19(2), 112-24, 2006. PMCID:2668252

Wang, D, Wang, H, Brown, J, Daikoku, T, Ning, W, Shi, Q, Richmond, A, Strieter, R, Dey, SK, DuBois, RN. CXCL1 induced by prostaglandin E2 promotes angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. J Exp Med, 203(4), 941-51, 2006. PMCID:2118273

Yang, J, Amiri, KI, Burke, JR, Schmid, JA, Richmond, A. BMS-345541 targets inhibitor of kappaB kinase and induces apoptosis in melanoma: involvement of nuclear factor kappaB and mitochondria pathways. Clin Cancer Res, 12(3 Pt 1), 950-60, 2006. PMCID:2668250

Amiri, KI, Richmond, A. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in melanoma. Cancer Metastasis Rev, 24(2), 301-13, 2005. PMCID:2668255

Neel, NF, Schutyser, E, Sai, J, Fan, GH, Richmond, A. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 16(6), 637-58, 2005. PMCID:2668263

Schutyser, E, Richmond, A, Van Damme, J. Involvement of CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) in normal and pathological processes. J Leukoc Biol, 78(1), 14-26, 2005. PMCID:2665283

Su, Y, Raghuwanshi, SK, Yu, Y, Nanney, LB, Richardson, RM, Richmond, A. Altered CXCR2 signaling in beta-arrestin-2-deficient mouse models. J Immunol, 175(8), 5396-402, 2005. PMCID:2668249

Walker, GM, Sai, J, Richmond, A, Stremler, M, Chung, CY, Wikswo, JP. Effects of flow and diffusion on chemotaxis studies in a microfabricated gradient generator. Lab Chip, 5(6), 611-8, 2005. PMCID:2665276

Richmond A, Fan GH, Dhawan P, Yang J.. How do chemokine/chemokine receptor activations affect tumorigenesis?. Novartis Found Symp., 256(), 74-89; discussion 89-91, 106-11, 266-9., 2004 PMCID:15027484.

Richmond, A, Fan, GH, Dhawan, P, Yang, J. How do chemokine/chemokine receptor activations affect tumorigenesis. Novartis Found Symp, 256, 74-89; discussion 89-91, 106-11, 266-9, 2004 PMCID:15027484.

Amiri, KI, Horton, LW, LaFleur, BJ, Sosman, JA, Richmond, A. Augmenting chemosensitivity of malignant melanoma tumors via proteasome inhibition: implication for bortezomib (VELCADE, PS-341) as a therapeutic agent for malignant melanoma. Cancer Res, 64(14), 4912-8, 2004 PMCID:15256463.

Fan, GH, Lapierre, LA, Goldenring, JR, Sai, J, Richmond, A. Rab11-family interacting protein 2 and myosin Vb are required for CXCR2 recycling and receptor-mediated chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell, 15(5), 2456-69, 2004. PMCID:404037

Sai, J, Fan, GH, Wang, D, Richmond, A. The C-terminal domain LLKIL motif of CXCR2 is required for ligand-mediated polarization of early signals during chemotaxis. J Cell Sci, 117(Pt 23), 5489-96, 2004. PMCID:2668248

Yang, J, Richmond, A. The angiostatic activity of interferon-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 in human melanoma depends on binding to CXCR3 but not to glycosaminoglycan. Mol Ther, 9(6), 846-55, 2004. PMCID:2668261

Fan, GH, Lapierre, LA, Goldenring, JR, Richmond, A. Differential regulation of CXCR2 trafficking by Rab GTPases. Blood, 101(6), 2115-24, 2003 PMCID:12411301.

Amiri, KI, Richmond, A. Fine tuning the transcriptional regulation of the CXCL1 chemokine. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol, 74, 1-36, 2003 PMCID:14510072.

Fan,GH. and Richmond,A. Chemokine Receptors. Encyclopedia of G protein coupled receptors, (), , 2003.

Milatovic, S, Nanney, LB, Yu, Y, White, JR, Richmond, A. Impaired healing of nitrogen mustard wounds in CXCR2 null mice. Wound Repair Regen, 11(3), 213-9, 2003. PMCID:2667443

Wang, D, Sai, J, Richmond, A. Cell surface heparan sulfate participates in CXCL1-induced signaling. Biochemistry, 42(4), 1071-7, 2003. PMCID:2667446

Dhawan, P, Singh, AB, Ellis, DL, Richmond, A. Constitutive activation of Akt/protein kinase B in melanoma leads to up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB and tumor progression. Cancer Res, 62(24), 7335-42, 2002 PMCID:12499277.

Dhawan P, Richmond A.. Role of CXCL1 in tumorigenesis of melanoma.. J Leukoc Biol. , 72(1), 9-18, 2002. PMCID:2668262

Dhawan P, Richmond A.. A novel NF-kappa B-inducing kinase-MAPK signaling pathway up-regulates NF-kappa B activity in melanoma cells.. J Biol Chem. , 277(10), 7920-8., 2002. PMCID:2668260

Du, J, Luan, J, Liu, H, Daniel, TO, Peiper, S, Chen, TS, Yu, Y, Horton, LW, Nanney, LB, Strieter, RM, Richmond, A. Potential role for Duffy antigen chemokine-binding protein in angiogenesis and maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. J Leukoc Biol, 71(1), 141-53, 2002. PMCID:2665273

Fan GH, Yang W, Sai J, Richmond A.. Hsc/Hsp70 interacting protein (hip) associates with CXCR2 and regulates the receptor signaling and trafficking.. J Biol Chem. , 277(8), 6590-7, 2002. PMCID:2665275

Fan,GH. and Richmond,A. Molecule Page CXCR2. Alliance for Cell Signaling, , On line publication, 2002.

Richmond, A. Nf-kappa B, chemokine gene transcription and tumour growth. Nat Rev Immunol, 2(9), 664-74, 2002. PMCID:2668257

Wang D, Sai J, Carter G, Sachpatzidis A, Lolis E, Richmond A.. PAK1 kinase is required for CXCL1-induced chemotaxis.. Biochemistry, 41(22), 7100-7, 2002. PMCID:2668253

Yang, J, Luan, J, Yu, Y, Li, C, DePinho, RA, Chin, L, Richmond, A. Induction of melanoma in murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 transgenic mice heterozygous for inhibitor of kinase/alternate reading frame. Cancer Res, 61(22), 8150-7, 2001 PMCID:11719444.

Luan J, Furuta Y, Du J, Richmond A.. Developmental expression of two CXC chemokines, MIP-2 and KC, and their receptors.. Cytokine. , 14(5), 253-63, 2001 PMCID:11444905.

Yang, J, Richmond, A. Constitutive IkappaB kinase activity correlates with nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res, 61(12), 4901-9, 2001 PMCID:11406569.

Richmond, A, Cheng-Wu, Z. Optimization of a flat plate glass reactor for mass production of Nannochloropsis sp. outdoors. J Biotechnol, 85(3), 259-69, 2001 PMCID:11173093.

Nirodi, C, NagDas, S, Gygi, SP, Olson, G, Aebersold, R, Richmond, A. A role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the transcriptional regulation of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity (CXCL1) gene expression. J Biol Chem, 276(12), 9366-74, 2001 PMCID:11112786.

Fan GH, Yang W, Sai J, Richmond A.. Phosphorylation-independent association of CXCR2 with the protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme.. J Biol Chem, 276(20), 16960-8, 2001. PMCID:2666306

Fan GH, Yang W, Wang XJ, Qian Q, Richmond A.. Identification of a motif in the carboxyl terminus of CXCR2 that is involved in adaptin 2 binding and receptor internalization.. Biochemistry., 40(3), 791-800, 2001. PMCID:2664867

Nirodi, C, Hart, J, Dhawan, P, Moon, NS, Nepveu, A, Richmond, A. The role of CDP in the negative regulation of CXCL1 gene expression. J Biol Chem, 276(28), 26122-31, 2001. PMCID:2665279

Wang, D, Richmond, A. Nuclear factor-kappa B activation by the CXC chemokine melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulated protein involves the MEKK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Biol Chem, 276(5), 3650-9, 2001. PMCID:2676351

Yang, J, Fan, GH, Wadzinski, BE, Sakurai, H, Richmond, A. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with and directly dephosphorylates RelA. J Biol Chem, 276(51), 47828-33, 2001. PMCID:2665282

Nirodi, CS, Devalaraja, R, Nanney, LB, Arrindell, S, Russell, S, Trupin, J, Richmond, A. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in keloid and normal fibroblasts. Wound Repair Regen, 8(5), 371-82, 2000 PMCID:11115149.

Addison CL, Daniel TO, Burdick MD, Liu H, Ehlert JE, Xue YY, Buechi L, Walz A, Richmond A, Strieter RM.. The CXC chemokine receptor 2, CXCR2, is the putative receptor for ELR+ CXC chemokine-induced angiogenic activity.. J Immunol., 165(9), 5269-77, 2000 PMCID:11046061.

Richmond, A, Kaempfer, R. Cytokines revisited at Hilton head. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 11(3), 255-66, 2000 PMCID:10817967.

Devalaraja, RM, Nanney, LB, Du, J, Qian, Q, Yu, Y, Devalaraja, MN, Richmond, A. Delayed wound healing in CXCR2 knockout mice. J Invest Dermatol, 115(2), 234-44, 2000. PMCID:2664868

Haghnegahdar, H, Du, J, Wang, D, Strieter, RM, Burdick, MD, Nanney, LB, Cardwell, N, Luan, J, Shattuck-Brandt, R, Richmond, A. The tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of MGSA/GRO proteins in melanoma. J Leukoc Biol, 67(1), 53-62, 2000. PMCID:2669312

Wang, D, Yang, W, Du, J, Devalaraja, MN, Liang, P, Matsumoto, K, Tsubakimoto, K, Endo, T, Richmond, A. MGSA/GRO-mediated melanocyte transformation involves induction of Ras expression. Oncogene, 19(40), 4647-59, 2000. PMCID:2667445

Devalaraja, MN, Richmond, A. Multiple chemotactic factors: fine control or redundancy. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 20(4), 151-6, 1999 PMCID:10322500.

Yang, W, Wang, D, Richmond, A. Role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in CXCR2 sequestration, resensitization, and signal transduction. J Biol Chem, 274(16), 11328-33, 1999 PMCID:10196223.

Devalaraja, MN, Wang, DZ, Ballard, DW, Richmond, A. Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription. Cancer Res, 59(6), 1372-7, 1999 PMCID:10096573.

Nanney, LB, Skeel, A, Luan, J, Polis, S, Richmond, A, Wang, MH, Leonard, EJ. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of pro-macrophage-stimulating protein and upregulation of its receptor in tissue injury. J Invest Dermatol, 111(4), 573-81, 1998 PMCID:9764835.

Tang, T, Owen, JD, Du, J, Walker, CL, Richmond, A. Molecular cloning and characterization of a mouse gene with homology to the Duffy-antigen receptor for chemokines. DNA Seq, 9(3), 129-43, 1998 PMCID:10520743.

Shattuck-Brandt, RL, Wood, LD, Richmond, A. Identification and characterization of an MGSA/GRO pseudogene. DNA Seq, 7(6), 379-86, 1997 PMCID:9524820.

Yang, W, Schraw, WP, Mueller, SG, Richmond, A. Interruption of G protein-coupling in CXCR2 does not alter ligand binding, but eliminates ligand-activation of GTPgamma35S binding, calcium mobilization, and chemotaxis. Biochemistry, 36(49), 15193-200, 1997 PMCID:9398246.

Richmond A, Mueller S, White JR, Schraw W.. C-X-C chemokine receptor desensitization mediated through ligand-enhanced receptor phosphorylation on serine residues.. Methods Enzymol., 288, 3-15, 1997 PMCID:9356983.

Owen, JD, Strieter, R, Burdick, M, Haghnegahdar, H, Nanney, L, Shattuck-Brandt, R, Richmond, A. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins. Int J Cancer, 73(1), 94-103, 1997 PMCID:9334815.

Shattuck-Brandt, RL, Richmond, A. Enhanced degradation of I-kappaB alpha contributes to endogenous activation of NF-kappaB in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cancer Res, 57(14), 3032-9, 1997 PMCID:9230219.

Luan, J, Shattuck-Brandt, R, Haghnegahdar, H, Owen, JD, Strieter, R, Burdick, M, Nirodi, C, Beauchamp, D, Johnson, KN, Richmond, A. Mechanism and biological significance of constitutive expression of MGSA/GRO chemokines in malignant melanoma tumor progression. J Leukoc Biol, 62(5), 588-97, 1997 PMCID:9365113.

Mueller, SG, White, JR, Schraw, WP, Lam, V, Richmond, A. Ligand-induced desensitization of the human CXC chemokine receptor-2 is modulated by multiple serine residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the receptor. J Biol Chem, 272(13), 8207-14, 1997 PMCID:9079638.

Wood, LD, Richmond, A. Constitutive and cytokine-induced expression of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity/GRO alpha gene requires both NF-kappa B and novel constitutive factors. J Biol Chem, 270(51), 30619-26, 1995 PMCID:8530498.

Mueller, SG, Schraw, WP, Richmond, A. Activation of protein kinase C enhances the phosphorylation of the type B interleukin-8 receptor and stimulates its degradation in non-hematopoietic cells. J Biol Chem, 270(18), 10439-48, 1995 PMCID:7737978.

Schraw, W, Richmond, A. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity signaling through the class II interleukin-8 receptor enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of Crk-associated substrate, p130, and a 70-kilodalton protein. Biochemistry, 34(42), 13760-7, 1995 PMCID:7577968.

Nanney, LB, Mueller, SG, Bueno, R, Peiper, SC, Richmond, A. Distributions of melanoma growth stimulatory activity of growth-regulated gene and the interleukin-8 receptor B in human wound repair. Am J Pathol, 147(5), 1248-60, 1995. PMCID:1869526

Richmond, AH. The environment and refugees: theoretical and policy issues. Popul Bull UN, (39), 1-17, 1995.

Wood, LD, Farmer, AA, Richmond, A. HMGI(Y) and Sp1 in addition to NF-kappa B regulate transcription of the MGSA/GRO alpha gene. Nucleic Acids Res, 23(20), 4210-9, 1995. PMCID:307364

Mueller, SG, Schraw, WP, Richmond, A. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity enhances the phosphorylation of the class II interleukin-8 receptor in non-hematopoietic cells. J Biol Chem, 269(3), 1973-80, 1994 PMCID:8294449.

Shattuck, RL, Wood, LD, Jaffe, GJ, Richmond, A. MGSA/GRO transcription is differentially regulated in normal retinal pigment epithelial and melanoma cells. Mol Cell Biol, 14(1), 791-802, 1994. PMCID:358427

Tettelbach, W, Nanney, L, Ellis, D, King, L, Richmond, A. Localization of MGSA/GRO protein in cutaneous lesions. J Cutan Pathol, 20(3), 259-66, 1993 PMCID:8366215.

Cheng, QC, Han, JH, Thomas, HG, Balentien, E, Richmond, A. The melanoma growth stimulatory activity receptor consists of two proteins. Ligand binding results in enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation. J Immunol, 148(2), 451-6, 1992 PMCID:1729365.

Richmond, A. The pathogenic role of growth factors in melanoma. Semin Dermatol, 10(3), 246-55, 1991 PMCID:1931574.

Balentien, E, Mufson, BE, Shattuck, RL, Derynck, R, Richmond, A. Effects of MGSA/GRO alpha on melanocyte transformation. Oncogene, 6(7), 1115-24, 1991.

Thomas, HG, Han, JH, Balentien, E, Derynck, R, Bordoni, R, Richmond, A. Purification and characterization of recombinant melanoma growth stimulating activity. Methods Enzymol, 198, 373-83, 1991.

Baker, NE, Kucera, G, Richmond, A. Nucleotide sequence of the human melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) gene. Nucleic Acids Res, 18(21), 6453, 1990. PMCID:332569

Bordoni, R, Fine, R, Murray, D, Richmond, A. Characterization of the role of melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) in the growth of normal melanocytes, nevocytes, and malignant melanocytes. J Cell Biochem, 44(4), 207-19, 1990.

Bordoni, R, Thomas, G, Richmond, A. Growth factor modulation of melanoma growth stimulatory activity mRNA expression in human malignant melanoma cells correlates with cell growth. J Cell Biochem, 39(4), 421-8, 1989.

Priest, JH, Phillips, CN, Wang, Y, Richmond, A. Chromosome and growth factor abnormalities in melanoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet, 35(2), 253-62, 1988.

Richmond, A, Balentien, E, Thomas, HG, Flaggs, G, Barton, DE, Spiess, J, Bordoni, R, Francke, U, Derynck, R. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J, 7(7), 2025-33, 1988.

Lawson, DH, Thomas, HG, Roy, RG, Gordon, DS, Chawla, RK, Nixon, DW, Richmond, A. Preparation of a monoclonal antibody to a melanoma growth-stimulatory activity released into serum-free culture medium by Hs0294 malignant melanoma cells. J Cell Biochem, 34(3), 169-85, 1987.

Richmond, A, Fine, R, Murray, D, Lawson, DH, Priest, JH. Growth factor and cytogenetic abnormalities in cultured nevi and malignant melanomas. J Invest Dermatol, 86(3), 295-302, 1986.

Richmond, A, Lawson, DH, Nixon, DW, Chawla, RK. Characterization of autostimulatory and transforming growth factors from human melanoma cells. Cancer Res, 45(12 Pt 1), 6390-4, 1985.

Lawson, DH, Nixon, DW, Black, ML, Tindall, GT, Barnes, DA, Faraj, BA, Ali, FM, Camp, VM, Richmond, A. Evaluation of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in the management of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer, 51(8), 1541-5, 1983.

Richmond, A, Lawson, DH, Nixon, DW, Stevens, JS, Chawla, RK. Extraction of a melanoma growth-stimulatory activity from culture medium conditioned by the Hs0294 human melanoma cell line. Cancer Res, 43(5), 2106-12, 1983.

Lawson, DH, Richmond, A, Nixon, DW, Rudman, D. Metabolic approaches to cancer cachexia. Annu Rev Nutr, 2, 277-301, 1982.

Richmond, A, Lawson, DH, Nixon, DW, Stevens, JS, Chawla, RK. In vitro growth promotion in human malignant melanoma cells by fibroblast growth factor. Cancer Res, 42(8), 3175-80, 1982.

Chawla, RK, Lawson, DH, Richmond, A, Rudman, D. Effect of plasma inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor and cancer-related glycoprotein EDC1 on phytohemagglutinin-induced thymidine uptake in lymphocytes. Cancer Res, 40(11), 4187-91, 1980.

Chawla, RK, Shlaer, SM, Lawson, DH, Murray, TG, Schmidt, F, Shoji, M, Nixon, DW, Richmond, A, Rudman, D. Elevated plasma and urinary guanosine 3'':5''-monophosphate and increased production rate in patients with neoplastic diseases. Cancer Res, 40(11), 3915-20, 1980.

Postdoctoral Position Available

Postdoctoral Position Details
We have an opening for a training grant eligible postdoctoral fellow with training in immunology to work on projects in tumor immunology. Specifically we are investigating how therapeutic treatments affect the leukocyte infiltrate into the tumor microenvironment and the pre-metastatic niche.

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